Abstract

A 1064nm laser is commonly used for biological optical trapping. However, it has the problem of generating reactive oxygen species in the presence of a sensitizer, which leads to photo damage in biological samples. Here we constructed optical tweezers using a tapered amplifier diode laser that operates at 830nm. Compared to a 1064nm laser, this laser is friendly to live cells, eliminates photo damage associated with reactive oxygen species, and allows simultaneous two-photon fluorescence imaging of green fluorescent proteins in live mammalian cells. All these advantages could significantly benefit future application of this single molecule technique in biological studies.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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W. Cheng, S. Dumont, I. Tinoco, Jr., and C. Bustamante, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 13954 (2007).
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M. T. Woodside, W. M. Behnke-Parks, K. Larizadeh, K. Travers, D. Herschlag, and S. M. Block, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 6190 (2006).
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L. Bai, T. J. Santangelo, and M. D. Wang, Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 35, 343 (2006).
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M. D. Evans, M. Dizdaroglu, and M. S. Cooke, Mutat. Res. 567, 1 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Neuman and S. M. Block, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2787 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

E. J. G. Peterman, F. Gittes, and C. F. Schmidt, Biophys. J. 84, 1308 (2003).
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K. Berg-Sorensen, L. Oddershede, E. L. Florin, and H. Flyvbjerg, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3167 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

P. T. So, C. Y. Dong, B. R. Masters, and K. M. Berland, Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 2, 399 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

K. C. Neuman, E. H. Chadd, G. F. Liou, K. Bergman, and S. M. Block, Biophys. J. 77, 2856 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

1996

H. Liang, K. T. Vu, P. Krishnan, T. C. Trang, D. Shin, S. Kimel, and M. W. Berns, Biophys. J. 70, 1529 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

1986

1973

C. Long and D. Kearns, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 5729 (1973).
[CrossRef]

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J. R. Moffitt, Y. R. Chemla, K. Aathavan, S. Grimes, P. J. Jardine, D. L. Anderson, and C. Bustamante, Nature 457, 446 (2009).
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E. A. Abbondanzieri, W. J. Greenleaf, J. W. Shaevitz, R. Landick, and S. M. Block, Nature 438, 460 (2005).
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J. R. Moffitt, Y. R. Chemla, K. Aathavan, S. Grimes, P. J. Jardine, D. L. Anderson, and C. Bustamante, Nature 457, 446 (2009).
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L. Bai, T. J. Santangelo, and M. D. Wang, Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 35, 343 (2006).
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Behnke-Parks, W. M.

M. T. Woodside, W. M. Behnke-Parks, K. Larizadeh, K. Travers, D. Herschlag, and S. M. Block, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 6190 (2006).
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K. C. Neuman, E. H. Chadd, G. F. Liou, K. Bergman, and S. M. Block, Biophys. J. 77, 2856 (1999).
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K. Berg-Sorensen, L. Oddershede, E. L. Florin, and H. Flyvbjerg, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3167 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Berland, K. M.

P. T. So, C. Y. Dong, B. R. Masters, and K. M. Berland, Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 2, 399 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Berns, M. W.

H. Liang, K. T. Vu, P. Krishnan, T. C. Trang, D. Shin, S. Kimel, and M. W. Berns, Biophys. J. 70, 1529 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, G. J. Sonek, M. W. Berns, K. Konig, and B. J. Thromberg, Opt. Lett. 20, 2246 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Block, S. M.

W. J. Greenleaf, M. T. Woodside, and S. M. Block, Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 36, 171 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Woodside, W. M. Behnke-Parks, K. Larizadeh, K. Travers, D. Herschlag, and S. M. Block, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 6190 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Abbondanzieri, W. J. Greenleaf, J. W. Shaevitz, R. Landick, and S. M. Block, Nature 438, 460 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Neuman and S. M. Block, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2787 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Neuman, E. H. Chadd, G. F. Liou, K. Bergman, and S. M. Block, Biophys. J. 77, 2856 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. Bustamante, Y. R. Chemla, and J. R. Moffitt, CSH Protoc. 2009, pdb ip73 (2009).

J. R. Moffitt, Y. R. Chemla, K. Aathavan, S. Grimes, P. J. Jardine, D. L. Anderson, and C. Bustamante, Nature 457, 446 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Moffitt, Y. R. Chemla, S. B. Smith, and C. Bustamante, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 77, 205 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Moffitt, Y. R. Chemla, D. Izhaky, and C. Bustamante, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 9006 (2006).
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A. R. Carter, Y. Seol, and T. T. Perkins, Biophys. J. 96, 2926 (2009).
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Chadd, E. H.

K. C. Neuman, E. H. Chadd, G. F. Liou, K. Bergman, and S. M. Block, Biophys. J. 77, 2856 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chemla, Y. R.

M. P. Landry, P. M. McCall, Z. Qi, and Y. R. Chemla, Biophys. J. 97, 2128 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Moffitt, Y. R. Chemla, K. Aathavan, S. Grimes, P. J. Jardine, D. L. Anderson, and C. Bustamante, Nature 457, 446 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Bustamante, Y. R. Chemla, and J. R. Moffitt, CSH Protoc. 2009, pdb ip73 (2009).

J. R. Moffitt, Y. R. Chemla, S. B. Smith, and C. Bustamante, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 77, 205 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Moffitt, Y. R. Chemla, D. Izhaky, and C. Bustamante, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 9006 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, W.

W. Cheng, S. Dumont, I. Tinoco, Jr., and C. Bustamante, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 13954 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, S.

Cooke, M. S.

M. D. Evans, M. Dizdaroglu, and M. S. Cooke, Mutat. Res. 567, 1 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dizdaroglu, M.

M. D. Evans, M. Dizdaroglu, and M. S. Cooke, Mutat. Res. 567, 1 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dong, C. Y.

P. T. So, C. Y. Dong, B. R. Masters, and K. M. Berland, Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 2, 399 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dumont, S.

W. Cheng, S. Dumont, I. Tinoco, Jr., and C. Bustamante, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 13954 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dziedzic, J. M.

Evans, M. D.

M. D. Evans, M. Dizdaroglu, and M. S. Cooke, Mutat. Res. 567, 1 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Florin, E. L.

K. Berg-Sorensen, L. Oddershede, E. L. Florin, and H. Flyvbjerg, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3167 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Flyvbjerg, H.

K. Berg-Sorensen, L. Oddershede, E. L. Florin, and H. Flyvbjerg, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3167 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gittes, F.

E. J. G. Peterman, F. Gittes, and C. F. Schmidt, Biophys. J. 84, 1308 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Gittes and C. F. Schmidt, Opt. Lett. 23, 7 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Greenleaf, W. J.

W. J. Greenleaf, M. T. Woodside, and S. M. Block, Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 36, 171 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Abbondanzieri, W. J. Greenleaf, J. W. Shaevitz, R. Landick, and S. M. Block, Nature 438, 460 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grimes, S.

J. R. Moffitt, Y. R. Chemla, K. Aathavan, S. Grimes, P. J. Jardine, D. L. Anderson, and C. Bustamante, Nature 457, 446 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herschlag, D.

M. T. Woodside, W. M. Behnke-Parks, K. Larizadeh, K. Travers, D. Herschlag, and S. M. Block, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 6190 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izhaky, D.

J. R. Moffitt, Y. R. Chemla, D. Izhaky, and C. Bustamante, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 9006 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jardine, P. J.

J. R. Moffitt, Y. R. Chemla, K. Aathavan, S. Grimes, P. J. Jardine, D. L. Anderson, and C. Bustamante, Nature 457, 446 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kearns, D.

C. Long and D. Kearns, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 5729 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Kimel, S.

H. Liang, K. T. Vu, P. Krishnan, T. C. Trang, D. Shin, S. Kimel, and M. W. Berns, Biophys. J. 70, 1529 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Konig, K.

Krishnan, P.

H. Liang, K. T. Vu, P. Krishnan, T. C. Trang, D. Shin, S. Kimel, and M. W. Berns, Biophys. J. 70, 1529 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Landick, R.

E. A. Abbondanzieri, W. J. Greenleaf, J. W. Shaevitz, R. Landick, and S. M. Block, Nature 438, 460 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Landry, M. P.

M. P. Landry, P. M. McCall, Z. Qi, and Y. R. Chemla, Biophys. J. 97, 2128 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larizadeh, K.

M. T. Woodside, W. M. Behnke-Parks, K. Larizadeh, K. Travers, D. Herschlag, and S. M. Block, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 6190 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, H.

H. Liang, K. T. Vu, P. Krishnan, T. C. Trang, D. Shin, S. Kimel, and M. W. Berns, Biophys. J. 70, 1529 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liou, G. F.

K. C. Neuman, E. H. Chadd, G. F. Liou, K. Bergman, and S. M. Block, Biophys. J. 77, 2856 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Long, C.

C. Long and D. Kearns, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 5729 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Masters, B. R.

P. T. So, C. Y. Dong, B. R. Masters, and K. M. Berland, Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 2, 399 (2000).
[CrossRef]

McCall, P. M.

M. P. Landry, P. M. McCall, Z. Qi, and Y. R. Chemla, Biophys. J. 97, 2128 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moffitt, J. R.

J. R. Moffitt, Y. R. Chemla, K. Aathavan, S. Grimes, P. J. Jardine, D. L. Anderson, and C. Bustamante, Nature 457, 446 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Bustamante, Y. R. Chemla, and J. R. Moffitt, CSH Protoc. 2009, pdb ip73 (2009).

J. R. Moffitt, Y. R. Chemla, S. B. Smith, and C. Bustamante, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 77, 205 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Moffitt, Y. R. Chemla, D. Izhaky, and C. Bustamante, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 9006 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neuman, K. C.

K. C. Neuman and S. M. Block, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2787 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Neuman, E. H. Chadd, G. F. Liou, K. Bergman, and S. M. Block, Biophys. J. 77, 2856 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oddershede, L.

K. Berg-Sorensen, L. Oddershede, E. L. Florin, and H. Flyvbjerg, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3167 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Perkins, T. T.

A. R. Carter, Y. Seol, and T. T. Perkins, Biophys. J. 96, 2926 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peterman, E. J. G.

E. J. G. Peterman, F. Gittes, and C. F. Schmidt, Biophys. J. 84, 1308 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qi, Z.

M. P. Landry, P. M. McCall, Z. Qi, and Y. R. Chemla, Biophys. J. 97, 2128 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Santangelo, T. J.

L. Bai, T. J. Santangelo, and M. D. Wang, Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 35, 343 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, C. F.

E. J. G. Peterman, F. Gittes, and C. F. Schmidt, Biophys. J. 84, 1308 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Gittes and C. F. Schmidt, Opt. Lett. 23, 7 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Seol, Y.

A. R. Carter, Y. Seol, and T. T. Perkins, Biophys. J. 96, 2926 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shaevitz, J. W.

E. A. Abbondanzieri, W. J. Greenleaf, J. W. Shaevitz, R. Landick, and S. M. Block, Nature 438, 460 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shin, D.

H. Liang, K. T. Vu, P. Krishnan, T. C. Trang, D. Shin, S. Kimel, and M. W. Berns, Biophys. J. 70, 1529 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, S. B.

J. R. Moffitt, Y. R. Chemla, S. B. Smith, and C. Bustamante, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 77, 205 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

So, P. T.

P. T. So, C. Y. Dong, B. R. Masters, and K. M. Berland, Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 2, 399 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sonek, G. J.

Thromberg, B. J.

Tinoco, I.

W. Cheng, S. Dumont, I. Tinoco, Jr., and C. Bustamante, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 13954 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trang, T. C.

H. Liang, K. T. Vu, P. Krishnan, T. C. Trang, D. Shin, S. Kimel, and M. W. Berns, Biophys. J. 70, 1529 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Travers, K.

M. T. Woodside, W. M. Behnke-Parks, K. Larizadeh, K. Travers, D. Herschlag, and S. M. Block, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 6190 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vu, K. T.

H. Liang, K. T. Vu, P. Krishnan, T. C. Trang, D. Shin, S. Kimel, and M. W. Berns, Biophys. J. 70, 1529 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, M. D.

L. Bai, T. J. Santangelo, and M. D. Wang, Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 35, 343 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woodside, M. T.

W. J. Greenleaf, M. T. Woodside, and S. M. Block, Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 36, 171 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Woodside, W. M. Behnke-Parks, K. Larizadeh, K. Travers, D. Herschlag, and S. M. Block, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 6190 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Biochem.

J. R. Moffitt, Y. R. Chemla, S. B. Smith, and C. Bustamante, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 77, 205 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng.

P. T. So, C. Y. Dong, B. R. Masters, and K. M. Berland, Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 2, 399 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct.

L. Bai, T. J. Santangelo, and M. D. Wang, Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 35, 343 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Greenleaf, M. T. Woodside, and S. M. Block, Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 36, 171 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biophys. J.

A. R. Carter, Y. Seol, and T. T. Perkins, Biophys. J. 96, 2926 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. G. Peterman, F. Gittes, and C. F. Schmidt, Biophys. J. 84, 1308 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Landry, P. M. McCall, Z. Qi, and Y. R. Chemla, Biophys. J. 97, 2128 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liang, K. T. Vu, P. Krishnan, T. C. Trang, D. Shin, S. Kimel, and M. W. Berns, Biophys. J. 70, 1529 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Neuman, E. H. Chadd, G. F. Liou, K. Bergman, and S. M. Block, Biophys. J. 77, 2856 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

CSH Protoc.

C. Bustamante, Y. R. Chemla, and J. R. Moffitt, CSH Protoc. 2009, pdb ip73 (2009).

J. Appl. Phys.

K. Berg-Sorensen, L. Oddershede, E. L. Florin, and H. Flyvbjerg, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3167 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

C. Long and D. Kearns, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 5729 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Mutat. Res.

M. D. Evans, M. Dizdaroglu, and M. S. Cooke, Mutat. Res. 567, 1 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

J. R. Moffitt, Y. R. Chemla, K. Aathavan, S. Grimes, P. J. Jardine, D. L. Anderson, and C. Bustamante, Nature 457, 446 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Abbondanzieri, W. J. Greenleaf, J. W. Shaevitz, R. Landick, and S. M. Block, Nature 438, 460 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

W. Cheng, S. Dumont, I. Tinoco, Jr., and C. Bustamante, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 13954 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic layout of the OT/TPF microscope using TA diode laser. FC, fiber collimator; WP, wave plate; T1, T2, telescopes; SF, spatial filter; PBS1, PBS2, PBS3, polarizing beam splitters; M1, M2, M3, M4, reflective mirrors; SM, steerable mirror; DM1, DM2, dichroic mirrors; O1, O2, objectives; MC, microfluidic chamber; TL1, TL2, TL3, TL4, tube lens; RL1, RL2, relay lens, PD1, PD2, position-sensitive detectors.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Consecutive cycles of force-extension measurements for a single RNA hairpin with (a) 830 and (b) 1064 nm OTs, respectively. The trajectories are arbitrarily shifted along the extension axis for clarity of display.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical trapping of T lymphocytes in a solution containing amine-reactive green fluorescent dye, where a freshly cultured T cell is shown in (a) and a heat-killed T cell is shown in (b). The observation was repeated for a total of ten cells. The scale bars are 10 μm .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Overlap of bright-field and TPF images of a single 293T cell trapped by a 830 nm laser. Initially, (a) two laser beams were at the same focus, then one beam was moved away [the left focus in (b), indicated by arrow] from the other until they were 5.7 μm apart, in (f). Scale bar is 10 μm .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

830 nm TA laser has lower-intensity noise than a 1064 nm laser. Power spectra of (a) laser pointing noise; and (b) laser intensity noise. For each laser, the intensity noise for two traps are shown, 830 nm in red and cyan, and two 1064 nm lasers in black and purple, blue and green respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spatial resolution of the OT instrument measured using BFP interferometry. (a) The displacement between two beads was measured as a function of time; (b) pairwise distance analysis of the red filtered data shown in (a).

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