Abstract

We report on intensity fluctuations of a coherent random laser based on incoherent feedback via nonresonant multiple scattering. We quantify the spectral line shape fluctuations in terms of correlations of an individual spectrum with the ensemble-averaged spectrum, which infers the signature of the gain profile of the medium. These correlations are studied in relation to the intensity of the highest coherent modes. We evaluate the distribution of the ratio of the coherent and incoherent fractions in the emission, after independently assessing their statistics. Finally, these intensity fluctuations are graphically represented in a single scatter plot, the centroid of which can be used as a characterization parameter for the laser.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. S. Wiersma, Nature Phys. 4, 359 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Cao, Waves Random Complex Media 13, R1 (2003).
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  4. V. S. Letokhov, Sov. Phys. JETP 26, 835 (1968).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Mujumdar, M. Ricci, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053903 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, Nat. Photonics 3, 279 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. E. Türeci, L. Ge, S. Rotter, and A. D. Stone, Science 320, 643 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. Mujumdar, V. Tuerck, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. A 76, 033807 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

S. Mujumdar, R. Torre, H. Ramachandran, and D. S. Wiersma, J. Nanophotonics 4, 041550 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, Nat. Photonics 3, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

H. E. Türeci, L. Ge, S. Rotter, and A. D. Stone, Science 320, 643 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Wiersma, Nature Phys. 4, 359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Wu and H. Cao, Phys. Rev. A 77, 013832 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

R. Pierrat and R. Carminati, Phys. Rev. A 76, 023821 (2007), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

S. Mujumdar, V. Tuerck, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. A 76, 033807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

K. L. van der Molen, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. A 74, 053808 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

S. Mujumdar, M. Ricci, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

H. Cao, Waves Random Complex Media 13, R1 (2003).

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, Nature 368, 436 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

V. S. Letokhov, Sov. Phys. JETP 26, 835 (1968).

Balachandran, R. M.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, Nature 368, 436 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cao, H.

X. Wu and H. Cao, Phys. Rev. A 77, 013832 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, Waves Random Complex Media 13, R1 (2003).

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Carminati, R.

R. Pierrat and R. Carminati, Phys. Rev. A 76, 023821 (2007), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. P. H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dietz, R. J. B.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, Nat. Photonics 3, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fallert, J.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, Nat. Photonics 3, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Filippidis, G.

Ge, L.

H. E. Türeci, L. Ge, S. Rotter, and A. D. Stone, Science 320, 643 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gomes, A. S. L.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, Nature 368, 436 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ho, S. T.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kalt, H.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, Nat. Photonics 3, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Klingshirn, C.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, Nat. Photonics 3, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lagendijk, A.

K. L. van der Molen, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. A 74, 053808 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lawandy, N. M.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, Nature 368, 436 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Letokhov, V. S.

V. S. Letokhov, Sov. Phys. JETP 26, 835 (1968).

Mosk, A. P.

K. L. van der Molen, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. A 74, 053808 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mujumdar, S.

S. Mujumdar, R. Torre, H. Ramachandran, and D. S. Wiersma, J. Nanophotonics 4, 041550 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Mujumdar, V. Tuerck, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. A 76, 033807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Mujumdar, M. Ricci, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noginov, M.

M. Noginov, in Solid State Random Lasers, Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer, 2005), Vol. 105.

Papadogiannis, N. A.

Papazoglou, T. G.

Pierrat, R.

R. Pierrat and R. Carminati, Phys. Rev. A 76, 023821 (2007), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Ramachandran, H.

S. Mujumdar, R. Torre, H. Ramachandran, and D. S. Wiersma, J. Nanophotonics 4, 041550 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ricci, M.

S. Mujumdar, M. Ricci, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rotter, S.

H. E. Türeci, L. Ge, S. Rotter, and A. D. Stone, Science 320, 643 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sartor, J.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, Nat. Photonics 3, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sauvain, E.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, Nature 368, 436 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, D.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, Nat. Photonics 3, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Seelig, E. W.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stone, A. D.

H. E. Türeci, L. Ge, S. Rotter, and A. D. Stone, Science 320, 643 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torre, R.

S. Mujumdar, R. Torre, H. Ramachandran, and D. S. Wiersma, J. Nanophotonics 4, 041550 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Mujumdar, V. Tuerck, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. A 76, 033807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Mujumdar, M. Ricci, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tuerck, V.

S. Mujumdar, V. Tuerck, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. A 76, 033807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Türeci, H. E.

H. E. Türeci, L. Ge, S. Rotter, and A. D. Stone, Science 320, 643 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Molen, K. L.

K. L. van der Molen, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. A 74, 053808 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q. H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wiersma, D. S.

S. Mujumdar, R. Torre, H. Ramachandran, and D. S. Wiersma, J. Nanophotonics 4, 041550 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wiersma, Nature Phys. 4, 359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Mujumdar, V. Tuerck, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. A 76, 033807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Mujumdar, M. Ricci, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, X.

X. Wu and H. Cao, Phys. Rev. A 77, 013832 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zacharakis, G.

Zhao, Y. G.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Nanophotonics (1)

S. Mujumdar, R. Torre, H. Ramachandran, and D. S. Wiersma, J. Nanophotonics 4, 041550 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, Nat. Photonics 3, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, Nature 368, 436 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nature Phys. (1)

D. S. Wiersma, Nature Phys. 4, 359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (4)

S. Mujumdar, V. Tuerck, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. A 76, 033807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. L. van der Molen, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. A 74, 053808 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Wu and H. Cao, Phys. Rev. A 77, 013832 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Pierrat and R. Carminati, Phys. Rev. A 76, 023821 (2007), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Mujumdar, M. Ricci, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

H. E. Türeci, L. Ge, S. Rotter, and A. D. Stone, Science 320, 643 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

V. S. Letokhov, Sov. Phys. JETP 26, 835 (1968).

Waves Random Complex Media (1)

H. Cao, Waves Random Complex Media 13, R1 (2003).

Other (1)

M. Noginov, in Solid State Random Lasers, Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer, 2005), Vol. 105.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a), (b) Spectra with reconstructed incoherent pedestal [thin lower curves (red online)]. Dotted curve in (a) shows the ensemble-averaged spectrum. (c), (d) Corresponding coherent components.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Histogram of correlation coefficient (η). (b) Scatter plot of η and the peak intensity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Distribution of the intensities of coherent peaks after separation from the incoherent pedestal. Inset, distribution including the pedestal.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Distribution of the ratio I coh / I inc .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Scatter plot of total intensity with the maximum intensity. Black square, centroid.

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