Abstract

We implemented a new experimental scheme for the generation of single-shot extreme-UV continua that exploits a combination of transform-limited 15fs, 800nm pulses and chirped 35fs, 800nm pulses with orthogonal polarizations. Continua are interpreted as the formation of a single attosecond pulse and attributed to the interplay between polarization, ionization gating, and trajectory selection operated by suitable phase-matching conditions.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, Science 320, 1614 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, Science 314, 443 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, C. Kalpouzos, E. P. Benis, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, Nat. Phys. 3, 846 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183901 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. Altucci, R. Esposito, V. Tosa, and R. Velotta, Opt. Lett. 33, 2943 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. V. Tosa, K. Kovacs, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, Opt. Express 17, 17700 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. F. Schapper, M. Holler, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, presented at the Second International Conference on Attosecond Physics (Manhattan, Kansas, USA, 28 July–1 August 2009), paper S02.
  8. M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986) [Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 91, 2008 (1986), in Russian].
  10. V. Tosa, K. T. Kim, and C. H. Nam, Phys. Rev. A 79, 043828 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (3)

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Tosa, K. Kovacs, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, Opt. Express 17, 17700 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Tosa, K. T. Kim, and C. H. Nam, Phys. Rev. A 79, 043828 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

C. Altucci, R. Esposito, V. Tosa, and R. Velotta, Opt. Lett. 33, 2943 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, Science 320, 1614 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, C. Kalpouzos, E. P. Benis, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, Nat. Phys. 3, 846 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, Science 314, 443 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986) [Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 91, 2008 (1986), in Russian].

Altucci, C.

V. Tosa, K. Kovacs, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, Opt. Express 17, 17700 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Altucci, R. Esposito, V. Tosa, and R. Velotta, Opt. Lett. 33, 2943 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, Science 314, 443 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ammosov, M. V.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986) [Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 91, 2008 (1986), in Russian].

Aquila, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, Science 320, 1614 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Attwood, D. T.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, Science 320, 1614 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avaldi, L.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, Science 314, 443 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balcou, Ph.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benedetti, E.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, Science 314, 443 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benis, E. P.

P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, C. Kalpouzos, E. P. Benis, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, Nat. Phys. 3, 846 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Calegari, F.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, Science 314, 443 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, Z.

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charalambidis, D.

P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, C. Kalpouzos, E. P. Benis, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, Nat. Phys. 3, 846 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chini, M.

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Silvestri, S.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, Science 314, 443 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delone, N. B.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986) [Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 91, 2008 (1986), in Russian].

Esposito, R.

Feng, X.

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flammini, R.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, Science 314, 443 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gagnon, J.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, Science 320, 1614 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gallmann, L.

F. Schapper, M. Holler, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, presented at the Second International Conference on Attosecond Physics (Manhattan, Kansas, USA, 28 July–1 August 2009), paper S02.

Gilbertson, S.

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goulielmakis, E.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, Science 320, 1614 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gullikson, E. M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, Science 320, 1614 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofstetter, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, Science 320, 1614 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holler, M.

F. Schapper, M. Holler, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, presented at the Second International Conference on Attosecond Physics (Manhattan, Kansas, USA, 28 July–1 August 2009), paper S02.

Ivanov, M. Yu.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kalpouzos, C.

P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, C. Kalpouzos, E. P. Benis, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, Nat. Phys. 3, 846 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

F. Schapper, M. Holler, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, presented at the Second International Conference on Attosecond Physics (Manhattan, Kansas, USA, 28 July–1 August 2009), paper S02.

Khan, S. D.

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kienberger, R.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, Science 320, 1614 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, K. T.

V. Tosa, K. T. Kim, and C. H. Nam, Phys. Rev. A 79, 043828 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kleineberg, U.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, Science 320, 1614 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kovacs, K.

Krainov, V. P.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986) [Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 91, 2008 (1986), in Russian].

Krausz, F.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, Science 320, 1614 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L’Huillier, A.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewenstein, M.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mashiko, H.

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nam, C. H.

V. Tosa, K. T. Kim, and C. H. Nam, Phys. Rev. A 79, 043828 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nisoli, M.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, Science 314, 443 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poletto, L.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, Science 314, 443 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sansone, G.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, Science 314, 443 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schapper, F.

F. Schapper, M. Holler, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, presented at the Second International Conference on Attosecond Physics (Manhattan, Kansas, USA, 28 July–1 August 2009), paper S02.

Schultze, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, Science 320, 1614 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skantzakis, E.

P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, C. Kalpouzos, E. P. Benis, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, Nat. Phys. 3, 846 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stagira, S.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, Science 314, 443 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tosa, V.

Tsakiris, G. D.

P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, C. Kalpouzos, E. P. Benis, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, Nat. Phys. 3, 846 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tzallas, P.

P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, C. Kalpouzos, E. P. Benis, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, Nat. Phys. 3, 846 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Uiberacker, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, Science 320, 1614 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Velotta, R.

V. Tosa, K. Kovacs, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, Opt. Express 17, 17700 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Altucci, R. Esposito, V. Tosa, and R. Velotta, Opt. Lett. 33, 2943 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, Science 314, 443 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villoresi, P.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, Science 314, 443 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vozzi, C.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, Science 314, 443 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V. S.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, Science 320, 1614 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, K.

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Phys. (1)

P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, C. Kalpouzos, E. P. Benis, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, Nat. Phys. 3, 846 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

V. Tosa, K. T. Kim, and C. H. Nam, Phys. Rev. A 79, 043828 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, Science 320, 1614 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, Science 314, 443 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986) [Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 91, 2008 (1986), in Russian].

Other (1)

F. Schapper, M. Holler, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, presented at the Second International Conference on Attosecond Physics (Manhattan, Kansas, USA, 28 July–1 August 2009), paper S02.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Calculated perpendicularly polarized components of the electric field: 15 fs , 750 nm pulse (dashed curve) and chirped 33 fs , 750 nm pulse (solid curve). (b) Calculated ellipticity of the total driving field (solid curve, left vertical scale) and ionization fraction in krypton based on nonadiabatic ADK rates [10] (dashed curve, right vertical scale). (c) Calculated single dipole response (dashed curve) and propagated harmonic field in the far field (solid curve). The parameters of the simulations are a delay of 15 fs between the two pulses with the short pulse ahead; a CEP value of π / 8 rad and π / 8 rad for the short and the long pulse, respectively; a peak intensity of about 8 × 10 14 W cm 2 for both pulses; and a GDD of 180 fs 2 for the chirped pulse. As for the gas jet, the local pressure is 25 mbar , the length 0.6 mm —the jet being positioned 1 mm after focus in the diverging beams with a confocal parameter of 2.4 mm .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Measured single-shot harmonic spectra in krypton for different delays between short and long pulse. (b) Single-shot harmonic spectra generated in krypton for delays of 15 fs (solid curve) and 15.5 fs (dashed curve), respectively, between the short and the long driving pulse (short pulse ahead) in conditions similar to those simulated in Fig. 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulated harmonic spectra in krypton for delays of 15 fs (solid curve) and 15.5 fs (dashed curve), respectively, between the short and the long driving pulse (short pulse ahead) in conditions similar to those used for Fig. 1 and corresponding to the measured spectra reported in Fig. 2b.

Equations (1)

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α = k 2 β 2 ( T 0 4 + k 2 β 2 ) ,

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