Abstract

In this Letter, a 10μm quantum cascade laser operating in the intrapulse mode is used observe rapid passage (RP) effects within a 40cm single-pass gas cell containing low pressures of NH3. The laser tuning range allows the rotational states J=2 with K=0, 1, and 2 to be probed. We show that the RP structures change as a function of optical density and that the magnitude of the delay in the switch from absorption to emission as a function of increased gas pressure is dependent upon the initial value of K. These measurements are qualitatively well modeled using the Maxwell–Bloch equations.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. M. T. Loy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 814 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. T. McCulloch, G. Duxbury, and N. Langford, Mol. Phys. 104, 2767 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. J. H. van Helden, S. J. Horrocks, and G. A. D. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 081506 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. H. van Helden, R. Peverall, G. A. D. Ritchie, and R. J. Walker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 051116 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Welzel, L. Gatilova, J. Röpcke, and A. Rousseau, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 16, 822 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. T. McCulloch, E. L. Normand, N. Langford, G. Duxbury, and D. A. Newnham, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1761 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. T. McCulloch, N. Langford, and G. Duxbury, Appl. Opt. 44, 2887 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. B. Grouiez, B. Parvitte, L. Joly, and V. Zeninari, Opt. Lett. 34, 181 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. Duxbury, N. Langford, and K. Hay, J. Mod. Opt. 55, 3293 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. The HITRAN Database, www.hitran.com.
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    [CrossRef]
  13. L. Allen and J. H. Eberly, Optical Resonance and Two Level Atoms (Dover, 1975).
  14. C. H. Townes and A. L. Schawlow, Microwave Spectroscopy (Dover, 1975).

2009 (2)

J. H. van Helden, R. Peverall, G. A. D. Ritchie, and R. J. Walker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 051116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Grouiez, B. Parvitte, L. Joly, and V. Zeninari, Opt. Lett. 34, 181 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

G. Duxbury, N. Langford, and K. Hay, J. Mod. Opt. 55, 3293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. H. van Helden, S. J. Horrocks, and G. A. D. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 081506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

G. Duxbury, N. Langford, M. T. McCulloch, and S. Wright, Mol. Phys. 105, 741 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Welzel, L. Gatilova, J. Röpcke, and A. Rousseau, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 16, 822 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

M. T. McCulloch, G. Duxbury, and N. Langford, Mol. Phys. 104, 2767 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

V. Nemtchinov, K. Sung, and P. Varanasi, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 83, 243 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

1974 (1)

M. M. T. Loy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 814 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Allen, L.

L. Allen and J. H. Eberly, Optical Resonance and Two Level Atoms (Dover, 1975).

Duxbury, G.

G. Duxbury, N. Langford, and K. Hay, J. Mod. Opt. 55, 3293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Duxbury, N. Langford, M. T. McCulloch, and S. Wright, Mol. Phys. 105, 741 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. T. McCulloch, G. Duxbury, and N. Langford, Mol. Phys. 104, 2767 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. T. McCulloch, N. Langford, and G. Duxbury, Appl. Opt. 44, 2887 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. McCulloch, E. L. Normand, N. Langford, G. Duxbury, and D. A. Newnham, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1761 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eberly, J. H.

L. Allen and J. H. Eberly, Optical Resonance and Two Level Atoms (Dover, 1975).

Gatilova, L.

S. Welzel, L. Gatilova, J. Röpcke, and A. Rousseau, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 16, 822 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grouiez, B.

Hay, K.

G. Duxbury, N. Langford, and K. Hay, J. Mod. Opt. 55, 3293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Horrocks, S. J.

J. H. van Helden, S. J. Horrocks, and G. A. D. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 081506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Joly, L.

Langford, N.

G. Duxbury, N. Langford, and K. Hay, J. Mod. Opt. 55, 3293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Duxbury, N. Langford, M. T. McCulloch, and S. Wright, Mol. Phys. 105, 741 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. T. McCulloch, G. Duxbury, and N. Langford, Mol. Phys. 104, 2767 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. T. McCulloch, N. Langford, and G. Duxbury, Appl. Opt. 44, 2887 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. McCulloch, E. L. Normand, N. Langford, G. Duxbury, and D. A. Newnham, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1761 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Loy, M. M. T.

M. M. T. Loy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 814 (1974).
[CrossRef]

McCulloch, M. T.

G. Duxbury, N. Langford, M. T. McCulloch, and S. Wright, Mol. Phys. 105, 741 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. T. McCulloch, G. Duxbury, and N. Langford, Mol. Phys. 104, 2767 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. T. McCulloch, N. Langford, and G. Duxbury, Appl. Opt. 44, 2887 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. McCulloch, E. L. Normand, N. Langford, G. Duxbury, and D. A. Newnham, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1761 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nemtchinov, V.

V. Nemtchinov, K. Sung, and P. Varanasi, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 83, 243 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Newnham, D. A.

Normand, E. L.

Parvitte, B.

Peverall, R.

J. H. van Helden, R. Peverall, G. A. D. Ritchie, and R. J. Walker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 051116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, G. A. D.

J. H. van Helden, R. Peverall, G. A. D. Ritchie, and R. J. Walker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 051116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. H. van Helden, S. J. Horrocks, and G. A. D. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 081506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Röpcke, J.

S. Welzel, L. Gatilova, J. Röpcke, and A. Rousseau, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 16, 822 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rousseau, A.

S. Welzel, L. Gatilova, J. Röpcke, and A. Rousseau, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 16, 822 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schawlow, A. L.

C. H. Townes and A. L. Schawlow, Microwave Spectroscopy (Dover, 1975).

Sung, K.

V. Nemtchinov, K. Sung, and P. Varanasi, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 83, 243 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Townes, C. H.

C. H. Townes and A. L. Schawlow, Microwave Spectroscopy (Dover, 1975).

van Helden, J. H.

J. H. van Helden, R. Peverall, G. A. D. Ritchie, and R. J. Walker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 051116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. H. van Helden, S. J. Horrocks, and G. A. D. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 081506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Varanasi, P.

V. Nemtchinov, K. Sung, and P. Varanasi, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 83, 243 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Walker, R. J.

J. H. van Helden, R. Peverall, G. A. D. Ritchie, and R. J. Walker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 051116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Welzel, S.

S. Welzel, L. Gatilova, J. Röpcke, and A. Rousseau, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 16, 822 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wright, S.

G. Duxbury, N. Langford, M. T. McCulloch, and S. Wright, Mol. Phys. 105, 741 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zeninari, V.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. H. van Helden, S. J. Horrocks, and G. A. D. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 081506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. H. van Helden, R. Peverall, G. A. D. Ritchie, and R. J. Walker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 051116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

G. Duxbury, N. Langford, and K. Hay, J. Mod. Opt. 55, 3293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

V. Nemtchinov, K. Sung, and P. Varanasi, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 83, 243 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Phys. (2)

M. T. McCulloch, G. Duxbury, and N. Langford, Mol. Phys. 104, 2767 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Duxbury, N. Langford, M. T. McCulloch, and S. Wright, Mol. Phys. 105, 741 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. M. T. Loy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 814 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. (1)

S. Welzel, L. Gatilova, J. Röpcke, and A. Rousseau, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 16, 822 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

L. Allen and J. H. Eberly, Optical Resonance and Two Level Atoms (Dover, 1975).

C. H. Townes and A. L. Schawlow, Microwave Spectroscopy (Dover, 1975).

The HITRAN Database, www.hitran.com.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectra over the pressure range 10 1000 mTorr of (a) the a R ( 2 , 0 ) transition and (b) the a R ( 2 , 1 ) transition. The overlapping black lines are the spectra from the reference cell recorded simultaneously with each measurement.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Pressure shifts for all three K states as (a) measured and (b) simulated.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulated spectra of the a R ( 2 , 0 ) transition over the pressure range 0.05 3 Torr .

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Spectroscopic Data for the NH 3 Transitions [11] a

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