Abstract

We present an on-chip arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) sensor based on the confocal arrangement of two AWGs, one acting as focusing illuminator and one as signal collector. The chip can be close to, or in direct contact with, a sample, e.g., biological tissue, without the need of external optics. The collection efficiency of our device can be more than 1 order of magnitude higher than that of a standard AWG, in which light is collected by one input channel. Experimental results on the collection efficiency and volume are presented, together with a demonstration of multiwavelength imaging.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. G. Shim, B. C. Wilson, E. Marple, and M. Wach, Appl. Spectrosc. 53, 619 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. J. Caspers, G. W. Lucassen, E. A. Carter, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, J. Invest. Dermatol. 116, 434 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. Papaioannou, N. Preyer, Q. Fang, H. Kurt, M. Carnohan, R. Ross, A. Brightwell, G. Cottone, L. Jones, and L. Marcu, Proc. SPIE 4958, 43 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. N. Lewis, P. J. Treado, and I. W. Levin, Appl. Spectrosc. 47, 539 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Yurtsever and R. Baets, in Proceedings of Symposium IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter (IEEE-LEOS, 2008), pp. 163–166.
  6. M. K. Smit and C. v. Dam, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 236 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Wörhoff, L. T. H. Hilderink, A. Driessen, and P. V. Lambeck, J. Electrochem. Soc. 149, F85 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. G. Hall, R. R. Rice, and J. D. Zino, Opt. Lett. 4, 292 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

T. Papaioannou, N. Preyer, Q. Fang, H. Kurt, M. Carnohan, R. Ross, A. Brightwell, G. Cottone, L. Jones, and L. Marcu, Proc. SPIE 4958, 43 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

K. Wörhoff, L. T. H. Hilderink, A. Driessen, and P. V. Lambeck, J. Electrochem. Soc. 149, F85 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

P. J. Caspers, G. W. Lucassen, E. A. Carter, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, J. Invest. Dermatol. 116, 434 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

1996 (1)

M. K. Smit and C. v. Dam, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1979 (1)

Baets, R.

G. Yurtsever and R. Baets, in Proceedings of Symposium IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter (IEEE-LEOS, 2008), pp. 163–166.

Brightwell, A.

T. Papaioannou, N. Preyer, Q. Fang, H. Kurt, M. Carnohan, R. Ross, A. Brightwell, G. Cottone, L. Jones, and L. Marcu, Proc. SPIE 4958, 43 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bruining, H. A.

P. J. Caspers, G. W. Lucassen, E. A. Carter, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, J. Invest. Dermatol. 116, 434 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carnohan, M.

T. Papaioannou, N. Preyer, Q. Fang, H. Kurt, M. Carnohan, R. Ross, A. Brightwell, G. Cottone, L. Jones, and L. Marcu, Proc. SPIE 4958, 43 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carter, E. A.

P. J. Caspers, G. W. Lucassen, E. A. Carter, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, J. Invest. Dermatol. 116, 434 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caspers, P. J.

P. J. Caspers, G. W. Lucassen, E. A. Carter, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, J. Invest. Dermatol. 116, 434 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cottone, G.

T. Papaioannou, N. Preyer, Q. Fang, H. Kurt, M. Carnohan, R. Ross, A. Brightwell, G. Cottone, L. Jones, and L. Marcu, Proc. SPIE 4958, 43 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dam, C. v.

M. K. Smit and C. v. Dam, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Driessen, A.

K. Wörhoff, L. T. H. Hilderink, A. Driessen, and P. V. Lambeck, J. Electrochem. Soc. 149, F85 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Q.

T. Papaioannou, N. Preyer, Q. Fang, H. Kurt, M. Carnohan, R. Ross, A. Brightwell, G. Cottone, L. Jones, and L. Marcu, Proc. SPIE 4958, 43 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hall, D. G.

Hilderink, L. T. H.

K. Wörhoff, L. T. H. Hilderink, A. Driessen, and P. V. Lambeck, J. Electrochem. Soc. 149, F85 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jones, L.

T. Papaioannou, N. Preyer, Q. Fang, H. Kurt, M. Carnohan, R. Ross, A. Brightwell, G. Cottone, L. Jones, and L. Marcu, Proc. SPIE 4958, 43 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kurt, H.

T. Papaioannou, N. Preyer, Q. Fang, H. Kurt, M. Carnohan, R. Ross, A. Brightwell, G. Cottone, L. Jones, and L. Marcu, Proc. SPIE 4958, 43 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lambeck, P. V.

K. Wörhoff, L. T. H. Hilderink, A. Driessen, and P. V. Lambeck, J. Electrochem. Soc. 149, F85 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Levin, I. W.

Lewis, E. N.

Lucassen, G. W.

P. J. Caspers, G. W. Lucassen, E. A. Carter, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, J. Invest. Dermatol. 116, 434 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcu, L.

T. Papaioannou, N. Preyer, Q. Fang, H. Kurt, M. Carnohan, R. Ross, A. Brightwell, G. Cottone, L. Jones, and L. Marcu, Proc. SPIE 4958, 43 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Marple, E.

Papaioannou, T.

T. Papaioannou, N. Preyer, Q. Fang, H. Kurt, M. Carnohan, R. Ross, A. Brightwell, G. Cottone, L. Jones, and L. Marcu, Proc. SPIE 4958, 43 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Preyer, N.

T. Papaioannou, N. Preyer, Q. Fang, H. Kurt, M. Carnohan, R. Ross, A. Brightwell, G. Cottone, L. Jones, and L. Marcu, Proc. SPIE 4958, 43 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Puppels, G. J.

P. J. Caspers, G. W. Lucassen, E. A. Carter, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, J. Invest. Dermatol. 116, 434 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rice, R. R.

Ross, R.

T. Papaioannou, N. Preyer, Q. Fang, H. Kurt, M. Carnohan, R. Ross, A. Brightwell, G. Cottone, L. Jones, and L. Marcu, Proc. SPIE 4958, 43 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shim, M. G.

Smit, M. K.

M. K. Smit and C. v. Dam, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Treado, P. J.

Wach, M.

Wilson, B. C.

Wörhoff, K.

K. Wörhoff, L. T. H. Hilderink, A. Driessen, and P. V. Lambeck, J. Electrochem. Soc. 149, F85 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yurtsever, G.

G. Yurtsever and R. Baets, in Proceedings of Symposium IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter (IEEE-LEOS, 2008), pp. 163–166.

Zino, J. D.

Appl. Spectrosc. (2)

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. K. Smit and C. v. Dam, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

K. Wörhoff, L. T. H. Hilderink, A. Driessen, and P. V. Lambeck, J. Electrochem. Soc. 149, F85 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Invest. Dermatol. (1)

P. J. Caspers, G. W. Lucassen, E. A. Carter, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, J. Invest. Dermatol. 116, 434 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

T. Papaioannou, N. Preyer, Q. Fang, H. Kurt, M. Carnohan, R. Ross, A. Brightwell, G. Cottone, L. Jones, and L. Marcu, Proc. SPIE 4958, 43 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

G. Yurtsever and R. Baets, in Proceedings of Symposium IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter (IEEE-LEOS, 2008), pp. 163–166.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the confocal arrangement of two AWGs (with central wavelength λ c and order m), which allows efficient illumination of, and signal collection from, a small focal volume below the sample surface.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Input sections of (a) a reference (standard) AWG and (b) a collector AWG (the proposed device), each positioned at a distance d from a source S.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of measured (symbols) and calculated (curves) power collected by (a) the reference AWG and (b) the collector AWG, normalized to the power collected by the reference AWG at d = 0 and α = 19.6 ° , versus source-to-input facet distance d for different values of the source angular aperture α. (c) Ratio of the power captured by collector versus reference AWG. This ratio is also shown for an ideal device with an infinitely extended SFPR. (d) Measurement of the spatial resolution of the collector AWG for d = 224 μm . The output power of the AWG is plotted versus distance of the source from the focal spot in the three directions, x, y, and z.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) 9 μm fiber array used as a sample; (b)–(d) measurement from output channels centered at 831, 841, and 856 nm ; (e) resulting multiwavelength image.

Metrics