Abstract

We report our observation of the signature of photon periodic orbits in the spontaneous emission spectra of large-aperture vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). The high-resolution measurement clearly demonstrates that over a thousand cavity modes with a narrow linewidth can be perfectly exhibited in the spontaneous emission spectrum just below the lasing threshold. The Fourier-transformed spectrum is analyzed to confirm that the spontaneous emission spectra of large-aperture VCSELs can be exploited to analogously investigate the energy spectra of the 2D quantum billiards.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Science 280, 1556 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Lebental, N. Djellali, C. Arnaud, J. S. Lauret, J. Zyss, R. Dubertrand, C. Schmit, and E. Bogomolny, Phys. Rev. A 76, 023830 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Tanaka, M. Hentschel, T. Fukushima, and T. Harayama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 033902 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Wiersig and M. Hentschel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033901 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. F. Huang, Y. F. Chen, H. C. Lai, and Y. P. Lan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 224102 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Gensty, K. Becker, I. Fischer, W. Elsässer, C. Degen, P. Debernardi, and G. P. Bava, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 233901 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Y. F. Chen, K. F. Huang, and Y. P. Lan, Phys. Rev. E 66, 066210 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Robin, C. Steier, J. Laskar, and L. Nadolski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 558 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. M. Wang and J. B. Delos, Phys. Rev. A 63, 043409 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. V. Szebehely, Theory of Orbits (Academic, 1967).
  11. M. Schulz-Ruhtenberg, I. V. Babushkin, N. A. Loiko, T. Ackemann, and K. F. Huang, Appl. Phys. B 81, 945 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. M. Purcell, Phys. Rev. 69, 37 (1946).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Wintgen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1589 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. Schulz-Ruhtenberg, I. V. Babushkin, N. A. Loiko, K. F. Huang, and T. Ackemann, Phys. Rev. A 81, 023819 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. I. V. Zozoulenko, A. S. Sachrajda, P. Zawadzki, K. F. Berggren, Y. Feng, and Z. Wasilewski, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 13, A7 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. F. Berggren, K. N. Pichugin, A. F. Sadreev, and A. Starikov, JETP Lett. 70, 403 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. L. Du, F. H. Wang, Y. P. Jin, Y. S. Zhou, X. H. Wang, and B. Y. Gu, Phys. Rev. A 71, 065401 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. L. Du and J. B. Delos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1731 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

M. Schulz-Ruhtenberg, I. V. Babushkin, N. A. Loiko, K. F. Huang, and T. Ackemann, Phys. Rev. A 81, 023819 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

J. Wiersig and M. Hentschel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

M. Lebental, N. Djellali, C. Arnaud, J. S. Lauret, J. Zyss, R. Dubertrand, C. Schmit, and E. Bogomolny, Phys. Rev. A 76, 023830 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanaka, M. Hentschel, T. Fukushima, and T. Harayama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 033902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

T. Gensty, K. Becker, I. Fischer, W. Elsässer, C. Degen, P. Debernardi, and G. P. Bava, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 233901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schulz-Ruhtenberg, I. V. Babushkin, N. A. Loiko, T. Ackemann, and K. F. Huang, Appl. Phys. B 81, 945 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Du, F. H. Wang, Y. P. Jin, Y. S. Zhou, X. H. Wang, and B. Y. Gu, Phys. Rev. A 71, 065401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

Y. F. Chen, K. F. Huang, and Y. P. Lan, Phys. Rev. E 66, 066210 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. F. Huang, Y. F. Chen, H. C. Lai, and Y. P. Lan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 224102 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

D. M. Wang and J. B. Delos, Phys. Rev. A 63, 043409 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

D. Robin, C. Steier, J. Laskar, and L. Nadolski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 558 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

K. F. Berggren, K. N. Pichugin, A. F. Sadreev, and A. Starikov, JETP Lett. 70, 403 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

I. V. Zozoulenko, A. S. Sachrajda, P. Zawadzki, K. F. Berggren, Y. Feng, and Z. Wasilewski, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 13, A7 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Science 280, 1556 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (2)

D. Wintgen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1589 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Du and J. B. Delos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1731 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1946 (1)

E. M. Purcell, Phys. Rev. 69, 37 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Ackemann, T.

M. Schulz-Ruhtenberg, I. V. Babushkin, N. A. Loiko, K. F. Huang, and T. Ackemann, Phys. Rev. A 81, 023819 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Schulz-Ruhtenberg, I. V. Babushkin, N. A. Loiko, T. Ackemann, and K. F. Huang, Appl. Phys. B 81, 945 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Arnaud, C.

M. Lebental, N. Djellali, C. Arnaud, J. S. Lauret, J. Zyss, R. Dubertrand, C. Schmit, and E. Bogomolny, Phys. Rev. A 76, 023830 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Babushkin, I. V.

M. Schulz-Ruhtenberg, I. V. Babushkin, N. A. Loiko, K. F. Huang, and T. Ackemann, Phys. Rev. A 81, 023819 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Schulz-Ruhtenberg, I. V. Babushkin, N. A. Loiko, T. Ackemann, and K. F. Huang, Appl. Phys. B 81, 945 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bava, G. P.

T. Gensty, K. Becker, I. Fischer, W. Elsässer, C. Degen, P. Debernardi, and G. P. Bava, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 233901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, K.

T. Gensty, K. Becker, I. Fischer, W. Elsässer, C. Degen, P. Debernardi, and G. P. Bava, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 233901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berggren, K. F.

K. F. Berggren, K. N. Pichugin, A. F. Sadreev, and A. Starikov, JETP Lett. 70, 403 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Zozoulenko, A. S. Sachrajda, P. Zawadzki, K. F. Berggren, Y. Feng, and Z. Wasilewski, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 13, A7 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bogomolny, E.

M. Lebental, N. Djellali, C. Arnaud, J. S. Lauret, J. Zyss, R. Dubertrand, C. Schmit, and E. Bogomolny, Phys. Rev. A 76, 023830 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Science 280, 1556 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. F.

Y. F. Chen, K. F. Huang, and Y. P. Lan, Phys. Rev. E 66, 066210 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. F. Huang, Y. F. Chen, H. C. Lai, and Y. P. Lan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 224102 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, A. Y.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Science 280, 1556 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Debernardi, P.

T. Gensty, K. Becker, I. Fischer, W. Elsässer, C. Degen, P. Debernardi, and G. P. Bava, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 233901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Degen, C.

T. Gensty, K. Becker, I. Fischer, W. Elsässer, C. Degen, P. Debernardi, and G. P. Bava, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 233901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delos, J. B.

D. M. Wang and J. B. Delos, Phys. Rev. A 63, 043409 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Du and J. B. Delos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1731 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Djellali, N.

M. Lebental, N. Djellali, C. Arnaud, J. S. Lauret, J. Zyss, R. Dubertrand, C. Schmit, and E. Bogomolny, Phys. Rev. A 76, 023830 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Du, M. L.

M. L. Du, F. H. Wang, Y. P. Jin, Y. S. Zhou, X. H. Wang, and B. Y. Gu, Phys. Rev. A 71, 065401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Du and J. B. Delos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1731 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dubertrand, R.

M. Lebental, N. Djellali, C. Arnaud, J. S. Lauret, J. Zyss, R. Dubertrand, C. Schmit, and E. Bogomolny, Phys. Rev. A 76, 023830 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Elsässer, W.

T. Gensty, K. Becker, I. Fischer, W. Elsässer, C. Degen, P. Debernardi, and G. P. Bava, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 233901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faist, J.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Science 280, 1556 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, Y.

I. V. Zozoulenko, A. S. Sachrajda, P. Zawadzki, K. F. Berggren, Y. Feng, and Z. Wasilewski, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 13, A7 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, I.

T. Gensty, K. Becker, I. Fischer, W. Elsässer, C. Degen, P. Debernardi, and G. P. Bava, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 233901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukushima, T.

T. Tanaka, M. Hentschel, T. Fukushima, and T. Harayama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 033902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gensty, T.

T. Gensty, K. Becker, I. Fischer, W. Elsässer, C. Degen, P. Debernardi, and G. P. Bava, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 233901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gmachl, C.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Science 280, 1556 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, B. Y.

M. L. Du, F. H. Wang, Y. P. Jin, Y. S. Zhou, X. H. Wang, and B. Y. Gu, Phys. Rev. A 71, 065401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Harayama, T.

T. Tanaka, M. Hentschel, T. Fukushima, and T. Harayama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 033902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hentschel, M.

J. Wiersig and M. Hentschel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Tanaka, M. Hentschel, T. Fukushima, and T. Harayama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 033902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, K. F.

M. Schulz-Ruhtenberg, I. V. Babushkin, N. A. Loiko, K. F. Huang, and T. Ackemann, Phys. Rev. A 81, 023819 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Schulz-Ruhtenberg, I. V. Babushkin, N. A. Loiko, T. Ackemann, and K. F. Huang, Appl. Phys. B 81, 945 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. F. Huang, Y. F. Chen, H. C. Lai, and Y. P. Lan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 224102 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. F. Chen, K. F. Huang, and Y. P. Lan, Phys. Rev. E 66, 066210 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Y. P.

M. L. Du, F. H. Wang, Y. P. Jin, Y. S. Zhou, X. H. Wang, and B. Y. Gu, Phys. Rev. A 71, 065401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lai, H. C.

K. F. Huang, Y. F. Chen, H. C. Lai, and Y. P. Lan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 224102 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lan, Y. P.

K. F. Huang, Y. F. Chen, H. C. Lai, and Y. P. Lan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 224102 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. F. Chen, K. F. Huang, and Y. P. Lan, Phys. Rev. E 66, 066210 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Laskar, J.

D. Robin, C. Steier, J. Laskar, and L. Nadolski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 558 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lauret, J. S.

M. Lebental, N. Djellali, C. Arnaud, J. S. Lauret, J. Zyss, R. Dubertrand, C. Schmit, and E. Bogomolny, Phys. Rev. A 76, 023830 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lebental, M.

M. Lebental, N. Djellali, C. Arnaud, J. S. Lauret, J. Zyss, R. Dubertrand, C. Schmit, and E. Bogomolny, Phys. Rev. A 76, 023830 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Loiko, N. A.

M. Schulz-Ruhtenberg, I. V. Babushkin, N. A. Loiko, K. F. Huang, and T. Ackemann, Phys. Rev. A 81, 023819 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Schulz-Ruhtenberg, I. V. Babushkin, N. A. Loiko, T. Ackemann, and K. F. Huang, Appl. Phys. B 81, 945 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nadolski, L.

D. Robin, C. Steier, J. Laskar, and L. Nadolski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 558 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Narimanov, E. E.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Science 280, 1556 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nöckel, J. U.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Science 280, 1556 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pichugin, K. N.

K. F. Berggren, K. N. Pichugin, A. F. Sadreev, and A. Starikov, JETP Lett. 70, 403 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Purcell, E. M.

E. M. Purcell, Phys. Rev. 69, 37 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Robin, D.

D. Robin, C. Steier, J. Laskar, and L. Nadolski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 558 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sachrajda, A. S.

I. V. Zozoulenko, A. S. Sachrajda, P. Zawadzki, K. F. Berggren, Y. Feng, and Z. Wasilewski, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 13, A7 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sadreev, A. F.

K. F. Berggren, K. N. Pichugin, A. F. Sadreev, and A. Starikov, JETP Lett. 70, 403 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schmit, C.

M. Lebental, N. Djellali, C. Arnaud, J. S. Lauret, J. Zyss, R. Dubertrand, C. Schmit, and E. Bogomolny, Phys. Rev. A 76, 023830 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schulz-Ruhtenberg, M.

M. Schulz-Ruhtenberg, I. V. Babushkin, N. A. Loiko, K. F. Huang, and T. Ackemann, Phys. Rev. A 81, 023819 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Schulz-Ruhtenberg, I. V. Babushkin, N. A. Loiko, T. Ackemann, and K. F. Huang, Appl. Phys. B 81, 945 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sivco, D. L.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Science 280, 1556 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Starikov, A.

K. F. Berggren, K. N. Pichugin, A. F. Sadreev, and A. Starikov, JETP Lett. 70, 403 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Steier, C.

D. Robin, C. Steier, J. Laskar, and L. Nadolski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 558 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stone, A. D.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Science 280, 1556 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szebehely, V.

V. Szebehely, Theory of Orbits (Academic, 1967).

Tanaka, T.

T. Tanaka, M. Hentschel, T. Fukushima, and T. Harayama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 033902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, D. M.

D. M. Wang and J. B. Delos, Phys. Rev. A 63, 043409 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F. H.

M. L. Du, F. H. Wang, Y. P. Jin, Y. S. Zhou, X. H. Wang, and B. Y. Gu, Phys. Rev. A 71, 065401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. H.

M. L. Du, F. H. Wang, Y. P. Jin, Y. S. Zhou, X. H. Wang, and B. Y. Gu, Phys. Rev. A 71, 065401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wasilewski, Z.

I. V. Zozoulenko, A. S. Sachrajda, P. Zawadzki, K. F. Berggren, Y. Feng, and Z. Wasilewski, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 13, A7 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wiersig, J.

J. Wiersig and M. Hentschel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wintgen, D.

D. Wintgen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1589 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zawadzki, P.

I. V. Zozoulenko, A. S. Sachrajda, P. Zawadzki, K. F. Berggren, Y. Feng, and Z. Wasilewski, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 13, A7 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y. S.

M. L. Du, F. H. Wang, Y. P. Jin, Y. S. Zhou, X. H. Wang, and B. Y. Gu, Phys. Rev. A 71, 065401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zozoulenko, I. V.

I. V. Zozoulenko, A. S. Sachrajda, P. Zawadzki, K. F. Berggren, Y. Feng, and Z. Wasilewski, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 13, A7 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zyss, J.

M. Lebental, N. Djellali, C. Arnaud, J. S. Lauret, J. Zyss, R. Dubertrand, C. Schmit, and E. Bogomolny, Phys. Rev. A 76, 023830 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. Schulz-Ruhtenberg, I. V. Babushkin, N. A. Loiko, T. Ackemann, and K. F. Huang, Appl. Phys. B 81, 945 (2005).
[CrossRef]

JETP Lett. (1)

K. F. Berggren, K. N. Pichugin, A. F. Sadreev, and A. Starikov, JETP Lett. 70, 403 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

E. M. Purcell, Phys. Rev. 69, 37 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (4)

M. Schulz-Ruhtenberg, I. V. Babushkin, N. A. Loiko, K. F. Huang, and T. Ackemann, Phys. Rev. A 81, 023819 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Du, F. H. Wang, Y. P. Jin, Y. S. Zhou, X. H. Wang, and B. Y. Gu, Phys. Rev. A 71, 065401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Lebental, N. Djellali, C. Arnaud, J. S. Lauret, J. Zyss, R. Dubertrand, C. Schmit, and E. Bogomolny, Phys. Rev. A 76, 023830 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Wang and J. B. Delos, Phys. Rev. A 63, 043409 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

Y. F. Chen, K. F. Huang, and Y. P. Lan, Phys. Rev. E 66, 066210 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (7)

D. Robin, C. Steier, J. Laskar, and L. Nadolski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 558 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Tanaka, M. Hentschel, T. Fukushima, and T. Harayama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 033902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wiersig and M. Hentschel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. F. Huang, Y. F. Chen, H. C. Lai, and Y. P. Lan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 224102 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Gensty, K. Becker, I. Fischer, W. Elsässer, C. Degen, P. Debernardi, and G. P. Bava, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 233901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Du and J. B. Delos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1731 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Wintgen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1589 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Science 280, 1556 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

I. V. Zozoulenko, A. S. Sachrajda, P. Zawadzki, K. F. Berggren, Y. Feng, and Z. Wasilewski, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 13, A7 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

V. Szebehely, Theory of Orbits (Academic, 1967).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics of the laser device structure and the experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Emission spectra measured for several injection currents: (a)–(d) below lasing threshold and (e) just above lasing threshold.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fourier-transformed spectra | ρ ˜ SE ( L ) | , corresponding to the spontaneous emission spectra shown in Figs. 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d, 2e, respectively.

Metrics