Abstract

The effect of dielectric chirality on the polarization states and mode indices of guided modes in photonic crystal fiber (PCF) is investigated by a modified plane-wave expansion (PWE) method. Using a solid-core chiral PCF as a numerical example, we show that circular polarization is the eigenstate of the fundamental mode. Mode index divergence between right-handed circularly polarized (RCP) and left-handed circularly polarized (LCP) states is demonstrated. Chirality’s effect on mode index and circular birefringence (CB) in such a PCF is found to be similar to that in bulk chiral media.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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Z. Zalevsky, F. Luan, W. J. Wadsworth, S. L. Saval, and T. A. Birks, Opt. Eng. 45, 035005 (2006).
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S. H. Han, J. W. Wu, J. W. Kang, Y. D. Shin, J. S. Lee, and J. J. Kim, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 18, 298 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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1994 (1)

R. C. Qiu and I. T. Lu, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 11, 3212 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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Argyros, A.

Arriaga, J.

J. Arriaga, J. C. Knight, and P. S. J. Russell, Physica D 189, 100 (2004).
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Atkin, D. M.

Bai, G.

X. Pan, W. Tao, F. Yan, and G. Bai, Optoelectron. Lett. 2, 41 (2006).
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Barton, G.

Birks, T. A.

Z. Zalevsky, F. Luan, W. J. Wadsworth, S. L. Saval, and T. A. Birks, Opt. Eng. 45, 035005 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, and D. M. Atkin, Opt. Lett. 21, 1547 (1996).
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Brown, T.

Chao, N.

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, Science 305, 74 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chien, M.

Churikov, V. M.

V. M. Churikov, V. I. Kopp, and A. Z. Genack, Opt. Lett. 35, 342 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, Science 305, 74 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cox, F.

Cox, F. M.

Genack, A. Z.

V. M. Churikov, V. I. Kopp, and A. Z. Genack, Opt. Lett. 35, 342 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, Science 305, 74 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grebel, H.

Han, S. H.

S. H. Han, J. W. Wu, J. W. Kang, Y. D. Shin, J. S. Lee, and J. J. Kim, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 18, 298 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Henry, G.

Herman, W. N.

W. N. Herman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 18, 2806 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ishigure, T.

Issa, N. A.

Jin, L.

J. Q. Li, L. Jin, L. Li, and C. F. Li, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 1261 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. W.

S. H. Han, J. W. Wu, J. W. Kang, Y. D. Shin, J. S. Lee, and J. J. Kim, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 18, 298 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. J.

S. H. Han, J. W. Wu, J. W. Kang, Y. D. Shin, J. S. Lee, and J. J. Kim, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 18, 298 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.

Knight, J. C.

J. Arriaga, J. C. Knight, and P. S. J. Russell, Physica D 189, 100 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, Nature 424, 847 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, and D. M. Atkin, Opt. Lett. 21, 1547 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koike, Y.

Kopp, V. I.

V. M. Churikov, V. I. Kopp, and A. Z. Genack, Opt. Lett. 35, 342 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, Science 305, 74 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Large, M. C. J.

Lee, J. S.

S. H. Han, J. W. Wu, J. W. Kang, Y. D. Shin, J. S. Lee, and J. J. Kim, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 18, 298 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, C. F.

J. Q. Li, L. Jin, L. Li, and C. F. Li, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 1261 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, J. Q.

J. Q. Li, L. Jin, L. Li, and C. F. Li, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 1261 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

J. Q. Li, L. Jin, L. Li, and C. F. Li, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 1261 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lu, I. T.

R. C. Qiu and I. T. Lu, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 11, 3212 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Luan, F.

Z. Zalevsky, F. Luan, W. J. Wadsworth, S. L. Saval, and T. A. Birks, Opt. Eng. 45, 035005 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Neugroschl, D.

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, Science 305, 74 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nihei, E.

Pan, X.

X. Pan, W. Tao, F. Yan, and G. Bai, Optoelectron. Lett. 2, 41 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Poladian, L.

Ponrathnam, S.

Pujari, N. S.

Qiu, R. C.

R. C. Qiu and I. T. Lu, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 11, 3212 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P.

P. Russell, Science 299, 358 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, P. S. J.

Saval, S. L.

Z. Zalevsky, F. Luan, W. J. Wadsworth, S. L. Saval, and T. A. Birks, Opt. Eng. 45, 035005 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shin, Y. D.

S. H. Han, J. W. Wu, J. W. Kang, Y. D. Shin, J. S. Lee, and J. J. Kim, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 18, 298 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Singer, J.

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, Science 305, 74 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tao, W.

X. Pan, W. Tao, F. Yan, and G. Bai, Optoelectron. Lett. 2, 41 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van Eijkelenborg, M. A.

Wadsworth, W. J.

Z. Zalevsky, F. Luan, W. J. Wadsworth, S. L. Saval, and T. A. Birks, Opt. Eng. 45, 035005 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J. W.

S. H. Han, J. W. Wu, J. W. Kang, Y. D. Shin, J. S. Lee, and J. J. Kim, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 18, 298 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yan, F.

X. Pan, W. Tao, F. Yan, and G. Bai, Optoelectron. Lett. 2, 41 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zagari, J.

Zalevsky, Z.

Z. Zalevsky, F. Luan, W. J. Wadsworth, S. L. Saval, and T. A. Birks, Opt. Eng. 45, 035005 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Z.

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

J. Q. Li, L. Jin, L. Li, and C. F. Li, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 1261 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

S. H. Han, J. W. Wu, J. W. Kang, Y. D. Shin, J. S. Lee, and J. J. Kim, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 18, 298 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Qiu and I. T. Lu, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 11, 3212 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. N. Herman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 18, 2806 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

J. C. Knight, Nature 424, 847 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (1)

Z. Zalevsky, F. Luan, W. J. Wadsworth, S. L. Saval, and T. A. Birks, Opt. Eng. 45, 035005 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Optoelectron. Lett. (1)

X. Pan, W. Tao, F. Yan, and G. Bai, Optoelectron. Lett. 2, 41 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Physica D (1)

J. Arriaga, J. C. Knight, and P. S. J. Russell, Physica D 189, 100 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, Science 305, 74 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Russell, Science 299, 358 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fundamental mode of the chiral PCF. (a) Cross section of chiral PCF. The quadrangular region represents the 5 × 5 supercell. (b)–(d) Normalized intensity and polarization distribution of fundamental mode at 0.633 μm . In terms of the third Stokes parameter s 3 , (c) LCP and (d) RCP modes are observed.4/CO

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Effective indices of fundamental modes in PCFs with chiral background. Different amount of background chirality is introduced, including achiral case (solid curve) and chiral case with moderate chirality parameter ( δ 0 = 10 3 deg / cm , dotted curve) and a bit larger chirality parameter ( 5 δ 0 , dashed curve) .4/CO

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

CB of fundamental modes in PCFs with chiral background and chiral holes. CB of chiral media is also included (solid curve). Insets give the mode profile at 0.3 μm (left) and 0.9 μm (right) in form of contours with 15 uniformly spaced levels.4/CO

Equations (1)

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β 2 n , v A m n u v h n v + β n , v B m n u v h n v + n , v C m n u v h n v = 0 ( m , n = 1 , 2. ... .. s ; u , v = x , y , z ) ,

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