Abstract

We have fabricated an azobenzene (azo) polymer microellipsoidal cap array of hexagonal symmetry with high-power laser ablation and subsequent single-beam-induced mass migration. High-power interference with polarization-controlled triple beams is utilized to inscribe a circular bump array directly on the surface of the azo polymer film. The produced circular cap array is exposed to the linearly polarized beam, and the caps are stretched along the polarization direction of the irradiating beam. A model of gradient force emerged by the interaction of the polarized beam and azo polymer is constructed to explain the mechanism of such polarization-induced microscale shape deformation.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2010 (2)

L. M. Goldenberg, Y. Gritsai, O. Sakhno, O. Kulikovska, and J. Stumpe, J. Opt. 12, 015103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Luo, Q. Zhang, H. Liu, and G. Peng, Opt. Lett. 35, 751 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

J. Shen, J. Huang, Y. Luo, Q. Zhang, and K. Wang, Chin. J. Chem. Phys. 21, 493 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

B. Liu, Y. He, P. Fan, and X. Wang, Langmuir 23, 11266 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

Y. Li, Y. He, X. Tong, and X. Wang, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 2402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

Y. Yu, M. Nakano, and T. Ikeda, Nature 425, 145 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

A. Natansohn and P. Rochon, Chem. Rev. 102, 4139 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

S. Bian, J. M. Williams, D. Y. Kim, L. Li, S. Balasubramanian, J. Kumar, and S. Tripathy, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 4498 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. Bian, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, J. Williams, and S. K. Tripathy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1817 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, and A. Natansohn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

P. Rochon, J. Gosselin, A. Natansohn, and S. Xie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 4 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

Ashkin, A.

Balasubramanian, S.

S. Bian, J. M. Williams, D. Y. Kim, L. Li, S. Balasubramanian, J. Kumar, and S. Tripathy, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 4498 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Batalla, E.

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, and A. Natansohn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bian, S.

S. Bian, J. M. Williams, D. Y. Kim, L. Li, S. Balasubramanian, J. Kumar, and S. Tripathy, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 4498 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Bian, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, J. Williams, and S. K. Tripathy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1817 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

Chu, S.

Fan, P.

B. Liu, Y. He, P. Fan, and X. Wang, Langmuir 23, 11266 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldenberg, L. M.

L. M. Goldenberg, Y. Gritsai, O. Sakhno, O. Kulikovska, and J. Stumpe, J. Opt. 12, 015103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gosselin, J.

P. Rochon, J. Gosselin, A. Natansohn, and S. Xie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 4 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gritsai, Y.

L. M. Goldenberg, Y. Gritsai, O. Sakhno, O. Kulikovska, and J. Stumpe, J. Opt. 12, 015103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

He, Y.

B. Liu, Y. He, P. Fan, and X. Wang, Langmuir 23, 11266 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Li, Y. He, X. Tong, and X. Wang, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 2402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, J.

J. Shen, J. Huang, Y. Luo, Q. Zhang, and K. Wang, Chin. J. Chem. Phys. 21, 493 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, T.

Y. Yu, M. Nakano, and T. Ikeda, Nature 425, 145 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, D. Y.

S. Bian, J. M. Williams, D. Y. Kim, L. Li, S. Balasubramanian, J. Kumar, and S. Tripathy, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 4498 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Bian, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, J. Williams, and S. K. Tripathy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1817 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kulikovska, O.

L. M. Goldenberg, Y. Gritsai, O. Sakhno, O. Kulikovska, and J. Stumpe, J. Opt. 12, 015103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, J.

S. Bian, J. M. Williams, D. Y. Kim, L. Li, S. Balasubramanian, J. Kumar, and S. Tripathy, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 4498 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Bian, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, J. Williams, and S. K. Tripathy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1817 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

S. Bian, J. M. Williams, D. Y. Kim, L. Li, S. Balasubramanian, J. Kumar, and S. Tripathy, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 4498 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Bian, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, J. Williams, and S. K. Tripathy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1817 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, Y. He, X. Tong, and X. Wang, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 2402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, B.

B. Liu, Y. He, P. Fan, and X. Wang, Langmuir 23, 11266 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

Luo, Y.

Y. Luo, Q. Zhang, H. Liu, and G. Peng, Opt. Lett. 35, 751 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Shen, J. Huang, Y. Luo, Q. Zhang, and K. Wang, Chin. J. Chem. Phys. 21, 493 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nakano, M.

Y. Yu, M. Nakano, and T. Ikeda, Nature 425, 145 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Natansohn, A.

A. Natansohn and P. Rochon, Chem. Rev. 102, 4139 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, and A. Natansohn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Rochon, J. Gosselin, A. Natansohn, and S. Xie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 4 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Peng, G.

Rochon, P.

A. Natansohn and P. Rochon, Chem. Rev. 102, 4139 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, and A. Natansohn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Rochon, J. Gosselin, A. Natansohn, and S. Xie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 4 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sakhno, O.

L. M. Goldenberg, Y. Gritsai, O. Sakhno, O. Kulikovska, and J. Stumpe, J. Opt. 12, 015103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shen, J.

J. Shen, J. Huang, Y. Luo, Q. Zhang, and K. Wang, Chin. J. Chem. Phys. 21, 493 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stumpe, J.

L. M. Goldenberg, Y. Gritsai, O. Sakhno, O. Kulikovska, and J. Stumpe, J. Opt. 12, 015103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sziedzrim, J. M.

Tong, X.

Y. Li, Y. He, X. Tong, and X. Wang, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 2402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tripathy, S.

S. Bian, J. M. Williams, D. Y. Kim, L. Li, S. Balasubramanian, J. Kumar, and S. Tripathy, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 4498 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tripathy, S. K.

S. Bian, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, J. Williams, and S. K. Tripathy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1817 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K.

J. Shen, J. Huang, Y. Luo, Q. Zhang, and K. Wang, Chin. J. Chem. Phys. 21, 493 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

B. Liu, Y. He, P. Fan, and X. Wang, Langmuir 23, 11266 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Li, Y. He, X. Tong, and X. Wang, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 2402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, J.

S. Bian, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, J. Williams, and S. K. Tripathy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1817 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Williams, J. M.

S. Bian, J. M. Williams, D. Y. Kim, L. Li, S. Balasubramanian, J. Kumar, and S. Tripathy, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 4498 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xie, S.

P. Rochon, J. Gosselin, A. Natansohn, and S. Xie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 4 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Y.

Y. Yu, M. Nakano, and T. Ikeda, Nature 425, 145 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

Y. Luo, Q. Zhang, H. Liu, and G. Peng, Opt. Lett. 35, 751 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Shen, J. Huang, Y. Luo, Q. Zhang, and K. Wang, Chin. J. Chem. Phys. 21, 493 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, and A. Natansohn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Rochon, J. Gosselin, A. Natansohn, and S. Xie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 4 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Bian, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, J. Williams, and S. K. Tripathy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1817 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

A. Natansohn and P. Rochon, Chem. Rev. 102, 4139 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chin. J. Chem. Phys. (1)

J. Shen, J. Huang, Y. Luo, Q. Zhang, and K. Wang, Chin. J. Chem. Phys. 21, 493 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

Y. Li, Y. He, X. Tong, and X. Wang, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 2402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Bian, J. M. Williams, D. Y. Kim, L. Li, S. Balasubramanian, J. Kumar, and S. Tripathy, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 4498 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. (1)

L. M. Goldenberg, Y. Gritsai, O. Sakhno, O. Kulikovska, and J. Stumpe, J. Opt. 12, 015103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (1)

B. Liu, Y. He, P. Fan, and X. Wang, Langmuir 23, 11266 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

Y. Yu, M. Nakano, and T. Ikeda, Nature 425, 145 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Beam geometry for polarization- controlled triple-beam interference and chemical structure of the azo copolymer. The beams are placed symmetrically around and make an angle θ with the normal of the sample plane.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated intensity distribution and corresponding SEM pictures of the microstructures on the surface of an azo polymer produced by polarization-controlled three-beam interference. PA: (a) and (c) 0 ° , 120 ° , and 240 ° ; and (b) and (d) 0 ° , 0 ° , and 0 ° . The scale bar is for the overview pictures, and the insets are enlarged to triple the size of the overview pictures.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Deformed microcaps irradiated by a single linearly polarized light. The arrows are the polarization directions of the irradiation light. The scale bar is for the overview pictures, and the insets are enlarged to triple the size of the overview pictures.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ellipticity and height curves of the deformed caps on the surface versus the exposure time.

Equations (2)

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f ( r ) = 1 2 ε 0 χ E ( r ) · E ( r ) ,
s ( x , y , t ) = 1 4 h μ ε 0 χ 2 I ( x , y ) x 2 t ,

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