Abstract

We report single-photon frequency upconversion of multimode light from 1.55 to 0.532μm and demonstrate an end-to-end optical link that emulates photon-starved communications and atmospheric propagation. Using 64-ary pulse-position modulation and a half-rate serially concatenated turbo code we achieve a decoded efficiency of 0.3 detected photons/bit.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. A. Mendenhall, L. M. Candell, P. I. Hopman, G. Zogbi, D. M. Boroson, D. O. Caplan, C. J. Digenis, D. R. Hearn, and R. C. Shoup, Proc. IEEE 95, 2059 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. R. Pierce, IEEE Trans. Commun. 26, 1819 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. A. Albota and F. N. C. Wong, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (QELS), Vol. 89 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper QThPDB11.
  4. M. A. Albota and F. N. C. Wong, Opt. Lett. 29, 1449 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. Langrock, E. Diamanti, R. V. Roussev, Y. Yamamoto, M. M. Fejer, and H. Takesue, Opt. Lett. 30, 1725 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. E. Grein, L. E. Elgin, B. S. Robinson, A. J. Kerman, S. A. Hamilton, and W. E. Keicher, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CFH4.
  7. G. D. Boyd and D. A. Kleinman, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. O. Caplan, J. Opt. Fiber Commun. Rep. 4, 225 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. S. Robinson, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, R. J. Barron, D. O. Caplan, M. L. Stevens, J. J. Carney, S. A. Hamilton, J. K. Yang, and K. K. Berggren, Opt. Lett. 31, 444 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media, 2nd ed. (SPIE Press, 2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. Moision and J. Hamkins, “Coded modulation for the deep-space optical channel: serially concatenated pulse-position modulation,” The Interplanetary Network Progress Report (May 15, 2005), Vol. 42–161, pp. 1–26.

2007 (2)

J. A. Mendenhall, L. M. Candell, P. I. Hopman, G. Zogbi, D. M. Boroson, D. O. Caplan, C. J. Digenis, D. R. Hearn, and R. C. Shoup, Proc. IEEE 95, 2059 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. O. Caplan, J. Opt. Fiber Commun. Rep. 4, 225 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

1978 (1)

J. R. Pierce, IEEE Trans. Commun. 26, 1819 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

G. D. Boyd and D. A. Kleinman, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Albota, M. A.

M. A. Albota and F. N. C. Wong, Opt. Lett. 29, 1449 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Albota and F. N. C. Wong, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (QELS), Vol. 89 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper QThPDB11.

Andrews, L. C.

L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media, 2nd ed. (SPIE Press, 2005).
[CrossRef]

Barron, R. J.

Berggren, K. K.

Boroson, D. M.

J. A. Mendenhall, L. M. Candell, P. I. Hopman, G. Zogbi, D. M. Boroson, D. O. Caplan, C. J. Digenis, D. R. Hearn, and R. C. Shoup, Proc. IEEE 95, 2059 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, G. D.

G. D. Boyd and D. A. Kleinman, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Candell, L. M.

J. A. Mendenhall, L. M. Candell, P. I. Hopman, G. Zogbi, D. M. Boroson, D. O. Caplan, C. J. Digenis, D. R. Hearn, and R. C. Shoup, Proc. IEEE 95, 2059 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Caplan, D. O.

J. A. Mendenhall, L. M. Candell, P. I. Hopman, G. Zogbi, D. M. Boroson, D. O. Caplan, C. J. Digenis, D. R. Hearn, and R. C. Shoup, Proc. IEEE 95, 2059 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. O. Caplan, J. Opt. Fiber Commun. Rep. 4, 225 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Robinson, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, R. J. Barron, D. O. Caplan, M. L. Stevens, J. J. Carney, S. A. Hamilton, J. K. Yang, and K. K. Berggren, Opt. Lett. 31, 444 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carney, J. J.

Dauler, E. A.

Diamanti, E.

Digenis, C. J.

J. A. Mendenhall, L. M. Candell, P. I. Hopman, G. Zogbi, D. M. Boroson, D. O. Caplan, C. J. Digenis, D. R. Hearn, and R. C. Shoup, Proc. IEEE 95, 2059 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Elgin, L. E.

M. E. Grein, L. E. Elgin, B. S. Robinson, A. J. Kerman, S. A. Hamilton, and W. E. Keicher, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CFH4.

Fejer, M. M.

Grein, M. E.

M. E. Grein, L. E. Elgin, B. S. Robinson, A. J. Kerman, S. A. Hamilton, and W. E. Keicher, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CFH4.

Hamilton, S. A.

B. S. Robinson, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, R. J. Barron, D. O. Caplan, M. L. Stevens, J. J. Carney, S. A. Hamilton, J. K. Yang, and K. K. Berggren, Opt. Lett. 31, 444 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Grein, L. E. Elgin, B. S. Robinson, A. J. Kerman, S. A. Hamilton, and W. E. Keicher, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CFH4.

Hamkins, J.

B. Moision and J. Hamkins, “Coded modulation for the deep-space optical channel: serially concatenated pulse-position modulation,” The Interplanetary Network Progress Report (May 15, 2005), Vol. 42–161, pp. 1–26.

Hearn, D. R.

J. A. Mendenhall, L. M. Candell, P. I. Hopman, G. Zogbi, D. M. Boroson, D. O. Caplan, C. J. Digenis, D. R. Hearn, and R. C. Shoup, Proc. IEEE 95, 2059 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hopman, P. I.

J. A. Mendenhall, L. M. Candell, P. I. Hopman, G. Zogbi, D. M. Boroson, D. O. Caplan, C. J. Digenis, D. R. Hearn, and R. C. Shoup, Proc. IEEE 95, 2059 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Keicher, W. E.

M. E. Grein, L. E. Elgin, B. S. Robinson, A. J. Kerman, S. A. Hamilton, and W. E. Keicher, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CFH4.

Kerman, A. J.

B. S. Robinson, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, R. J. Barron, D. O. Caplan, M. L. Stevens, J. J. Carney, S. A. Hamilton, J. K. Yang, and K. K. Berggren, Opt. Lett. 31, 444 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Grein, L. E. Elgin, B. S. Robinson, A. J. Kerman, S. A. Hamilton, and W. E. Keicher, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CFH4.

Kleinman, D. A.

G. D. Boyd and D. A. Kleinman, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Langrock, C.

Mendenhall, J. A.

J. A. Mendenhall, L. M. Candell, P. I. Hopman, G. Zogbi, D. M. Boroson, D. O. Caplan, C. J. Digenis, D. R. Hearn, and R. C. Shoup, Proc. IEEE 95, 2059 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moision, B.

B. Moision and J. Hamkins, “Coded modulation for the deep-space optical channel: serially concatenated pulse-position modulation,” The Interplanetary Network Progress Report (May 15, 2005), Vol. 42–161, pp. 1–26.

Phillips, R. L.

L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media, 2nd ed. (SPIE Press, 2005).
[CrossRef]

Pierce, J. R.

J. R. Pierce, IEEE Trans. Commun. 26, 1819 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, B. S.

B. S. Robinson, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, R. J. Barron, D. O. Caplan, M. L. Stevens, J. J. Carney, S. A. Hamilton, J. K. Yang, and K. K. Berggren, Opt. Lett. 31, 444 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Grein, L. E. Elgin, B. S. Robinson, A. J. Kerman, S. A. Hamilton, and W. E. Keicher, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CFH4.

Roussev, R. V.

Shoup, R. C.

J. A. Mendenhall, L. M. Candell, P. I. Hopman, G. Zogbi, D. M. Boroson, D. O. Caplan, C. J. Digenis, D. R. Hearn, and R. C. Shoup, Proc. IEEE 95, 2059 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stevens, M. L.

Takesue, H.

Wong, F. N. C.

M. A. Albota and F. N. C. Wong, Opt. Lett. 29, 1449 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Albota and F. N. C. Wong, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (QELS), Vol. 89 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper QThPDB11.

Yamamoto, Y.

Yang, J. K.

Zogbi, G.

J. A. Mendenhall, L. M. Candell, P. I. Hopman, G. Zogbi, D. M. Boroson, D. O. Caplan, C. J. Digenis, D. R. Hearn, and R. C. Shoup, Proc. IEEE 95, 2059 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

J. R. Pierce, IEEE Trans. Commun. 26, 1819 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. D. Boyd and D. A. Kleinman, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Fiber Commun. Rep. (1)

D. O. Caplan, J. Opt. Fiber Commun. Rep. 4, 225 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. IEEE (1)

J. A. Mendenhall, L. M. Candell, P. I. Hopman, G. Zogbi, D. M. Boroson, D. O. Caplan, C. J. Digenis, D. R. Hearn, and R. C. Shoup, Proc. IEEE 95, 2059 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

M. A. Albota and F. N. C. Wong, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (QELS), Vol. 89 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper QThPDB11.

M. E. Grein, L. E. Elgin, B. S. Robinson, A. J. Kerman, S. A. Hamilton, and W. E. Keicher, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CFH4.

L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media, 2nd ed. (SPIE Press, 2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Moision and J. Hamkins, “Coded modulation for the deep-space optical channel: serially concatenated pulse-position modulation,” The Interplanetary Network Progress Report (May 15, 2005), Vol. 42–161, pp. 1–26.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

PPM photon-counting optical communications using multimode upconversion. Input 1.55 μm light passes through a phase screen (PS) and is translated to 0.532 μm via mixing with a 0.810 μm pump in a χ ( 2 ) PPLN crystal phase matched for horizontal, in-plane polarization. DM, dichroic mirror; FC, fiber collimator; BF, bandpass filter; FPC, fiber polarization controller; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; HWP, half-wave plate. Inset, intensity profile of the Gaussian (top image) and distorted (bottom two images) beams.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured uncoded and coded BER as a function of detected power for photon-counting communication link using 64-ary PPM. Error-free ( BER < 10 6 ) performance is achieved at 0.94 detected photons/pulse. At 3 source bits/pulse, this corresponds to 0.3 detected photons/bit.

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