Abstract

We report a spectroscopic method using coherent random lasers for a simple, yet nanoscale, sensing approach. Unique spectral properties of coherent random laser emission can be detectably altered when introducing nanoscale perturbations to a simple nanocomposite film that consists of dielectric nanospheres and laser-dye-doped polymer to serve as a transducer. Random lasing action provides a means to amplify subtle perturbations to readily detectable spectral shifts in multiple discrete emission peaks. Owing to several advantages, such as large-area detection, narrow and multiple emission peaks, straightforward detection, and simple fabrication, random laser spectroscopy has the potential for ultrasensitive, yet simple, biosensors in various applications.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Noginov, Solid-State Random Lasers, Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer, 2005).
  2. D. S. Wiersma, Nature Phys. 4, 359 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, Science 292, 1897 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, Phys. Rev. B 59, R5284 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Q. H. Song, L. Wang, S. M. Xiao, X. C. Zhou, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. B 72, 035424 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Siddique, L. Yang, Q. Z. Wang, and R. R. Alfano, Opt. Commun. 117, 475 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1289 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. M. Deng, Q. G. He, C. He, L. Q. Shi, J. G. Cheng, and T. Lin, J. Phys. Chem. B 114, 4725 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. E. Tureci, L. Ge, S. Rotter, and A. D. Stone, Science 320, 643 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

2009 (1)

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, Nat. Photon. 3, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

H. E. Tureci, L. Ge, S. Rotter, and A. D. Stone, Science 320, 643 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Wiersma, Nature Phys. 4, 359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

K. L. van der Molen, R. W. Tjerkstra, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 143901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

Q. H. Song, L. Wang, S. M. Xiao, X. C. Zhou, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. B 72, 035424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Rose, Z. G. Zhu, C. F. Madigan, T. M. Swager, and V. Bulovic, Nature 434, 876 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1289 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, Science 292, 1897 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, Phys. Rev. B 59, R5284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. Siddique, L. Yang, Q. Z. Wang, and R. R. Alfano, Opt. Commun. 117, 475 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Akkus, O.

Alfano, R. R.

M. Siddique, L. Yang, Q. Z. Wang, and R. R. Alfano, Opt. Commun. 117, 475 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Baughman, R. H.

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, Phys. Rev. B 59, R5284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bulovic, V.

A. Rose, Z. G. Zhu, C. F. Madigan, T. M. Swager, and V. Bulovic, Nature 434, 876 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. P. H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, J. G.

C. M. Deng, Q. G. He, C. He, L. Q. Shi, J. G. Cheng, and T. Lin, J. Phys. Chem. B 114, 4725 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deng, C. M.

C. M. Deng, Q. G. He, C. He, L. Q. Shi, J. G. Cheng, and T. Lin, J. Phys. Chem. B 114, 4725 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dietz, R. J. B.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, Nat. Photon. 3, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Drachev, V.

Fallert, J.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, Nat. Photon. 3, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Feick, H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, Science 292, 1897 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frolov, S. V.

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, Phys. Rev. B 59, R5284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ge, L.

H. E. Tureci, L. Ge, S. Rotter, and A. D. Stone, Science 320, 643 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, C.

C. M. Deng, Q. G. He, C. He, L. Q. Shi, J. G. Cheng, and T. Lin, J. Phys. Chem. B 114, 4725 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, Q. G.

C. M. Deng, Q. G. He, C. He, L. Q. Shi, J. G. Cheng, and T. Lin, J. Phys. Chem. B 114, 4725 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, S. T.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M. H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, Science 292, 1897 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kalt, H.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, Nat. Photon. 3, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. L.

Kind, H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, Science 292, 1897 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klingshirn, C.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, Nat. Photon. 3, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lagendijk, A.

K. L. van der Molen, R. W. Tjerkstra, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 143901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, T.

C. M. Deng, Q. G. He, C. He, L. Q. Shi, J. G. Cheng, and T. Lin, J. Phys. Chem. B 114, 4725 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

Liu, L. Y.

Q. H. Song, L. Wang, S. M. Xiao, X. C. Zhou, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. B 72, 035424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Madigan, C. F.

A. Rose, Z. G. Zhu, C. F. Madigan, T. M. Swager, and V. Bulovic, Nature 434, 876 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mao, S.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, Science 292, 1897 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mosk, A. P.

K. L. van der Molen, R. W. Tjerkstra, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 143901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noginov, M.

M. Noginov, Solid-State Random Lasers, Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer, 2005).

Polson, R. C.

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1289 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rose, A.

A. Rose, Z. G. Zhu, C. F. Madigan, T. M. Swager, and V. Bulovic, Nature 434, 876 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rotter, S.

H. E. Tureci, L. Ge, S. Rotter, and A. D. Stone, Science 320, 643 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russo, R.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, Science 292, 1897 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sartor, J.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, Nat. Photon. 3, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, D.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, Nat. Photon. 3, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Seelig, E. W.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

Shi, L. Q.

C. M. Deng, Q. G. He, C. He, L. Q. Shi, J. G. Cheng, and T. Lin, J. Phys. Chem. B 114, 4725 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siddique, M.

M. Siddique, L. Yang, Q. Z. Wang, and R. R. Alfano, Opt. Commun. 117, 475 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Song, Q.

Song, Q. H.

Q. H. Song, L. Wang, S. M. Xiao, X. C. Zhou, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. B 72, 035424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stone, A. D.

H. E. Tureci, L. Ge, S. Rotter, and A. D. Stone, Science 320, 643 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, X.

Swager, T. M.

A. Rose, Z. G. Zhu, C. F. Madigan, T. M. Swager, and V. Bulovic, Nature 434, 876 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tjerkstra, R. W.

K. L. van der Molen, R. W. Tjerkstra, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 143901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tureci, H. E.

H. E. Tureci, L. Ge, S. Rotter, and A. D. Stone, Science 320, 643 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Molen, K. L.

K. L. van der Molen, R. W. Tjerkstra, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 143901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vardeny, Z. V.

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1289 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, Phys. Rev. B 59, R5284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

Q. H. Song, L. Wang, S. M. Xiao, X. C. Zhou, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. B 72, 035424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q. H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q. Z.

M. Siddique, L. Yang, Q. Z. Wang, and R. R. Alfano, Opt. Commun. 117, 475 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Weber, E.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, Science 292, 1897 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiersma, D. S.

D. S. Wiersma, Nature Phys. 4, 359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y. Y.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, Science 292, 1897 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, S.

Xiao, S. M.

Q. H. Song, L. Wang, S. M. Xiao, X. C. Zhou, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. B 72, 035424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, L.

Q. H. Song, L. Wang, S. M. Xiao, X. C. Zhou, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. B 72, 035424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

Yan, H. Q.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, Science 292, 1897 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, L.

M. Siddique, L. Yang, Q. Z. Wang, and R. R. Alfano, Opt. Commun. 117, 475 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P. D.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, Science 292, 1897 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshino, K.

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, Phys. Rev. B 59, R5284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zakhidov, A.

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, Phys. Rev. B 59, R5284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y. G.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X. C.

Q. H. Song, L. Wang, S. M. Xiao, X. C. Zhou, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. B 72, 035424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Z. G.

A. Rose, Z. G. Zhu, C. F. Madigan, T. M. Swager, and V. Bulovic, Nature 434, 876 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1289 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

C. M. Deng, Q. G. He, C. He, L. Q. Shi, J. G. Cheng, and T. Lin, J. Phys. Chem. B 114, 4725 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photon. (1)

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, Nat. Photon. 3, 279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

A. Rose, Z. G. Zhu, C. F. Madigan, T. M. Swager, and V. Bulovic, Nature 434, 876 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Phys. (1)

D. S. Wiersma, Nature Phys. 4, 359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Siddique, L. Yang, Q. Z. Wang, and R. R. Alfano, Opt. Commun. 117, 475 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, Phys. Rev. B 59, R5284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Q. H. Song, L. Wang, S. M. Xiao, X. C. Zhou, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, Phys. Rev. B 72, 035424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. L. van der Molen, R. W. Tjerkstra, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 143901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

H. E. Tureci, L. Ge, S. Rotter, and A. D. Stone, Science 320, 643 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, Science 292, 1897 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

M. Noginov, Solid-State Random Lasers, Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer, 2005).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Field distribution of the high-Q resonant mode in the disordered waveguide film with a single nanoparticle on the top surface. (b) Spectral shift of the resonant wavelength resulting from different numbers of nano particles on the top surface of the film. The blue dots and red squares are taken from different resonant modes at λ 680 nm and 689 nm , respectively. Inset, spectral shift of the resonant wavelength at the resonant mode of 689 nm resulted from different binding locations of the single nanoparticle on the film ( Δ d is the distance from the original location).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic illustration of our optical setup. Inset, SEM image of randomly distributed silica nanoparticles on a glass substrate before applying SU-8 polymer on it. (b) Spectra of random lasing emission from the random laser film measured over time. Each acquisition time is 1 s averaged over 500 pumping pulses. (c) SEM image of silica nanoparticles attached to the top of the random laser film. (d) Changes in the emission spectrum before (red solid line) and after (black dashed line) introducing the nanoparticles.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) SEM image of 20 silica nanoparticles attached to the film. (b) Changes in the emission spectrum before (red solid line) and after (black dashed line) introducing the nanoparticles.

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