Abstract

Volume x-ray gratings consisting of a multilayer coating deposited on a blazed substrate can diffract with very high efficiency, even in high orders if diffraction conditions in-plane (grating) and out-of-plane (Bragg multilayer) are met simultaneously. This remarkable property, however, depends critically on the ability to create a structure with near atomic perfection. In this Letter we report on a method to produce these structures. We report measurements that show, for a 5000l/mm grating diffracting in the third order, a diffraction efficiency of 37.6% at a wavelength of 13.6nm. This work now shows a direct route to achieving high diffraction efficiency in high order at wavelengths throughout the soft x-ray energy range.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. L. Voronov, R. Cambie, R. M. Feshchenko, E. Gullikson, H. A. Padmore, A. V. Vinogradov, and V. V. Yashchuk, Proc. SPIE 6705, 67050E (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. D. L. Voronov, R. Cambie, E. M. Gullikson, V. V. Yashchuk, H. A. Padmore, Yu. P. Pershin, A. G. Ponomarenko, and V. V. Kondratenko, Proc. SPIE 7077, 707708 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. http://www-cxro.lbl.gov/beamlines/6.3.2.
  15. http://www.pcgrate.com.

2008 (2)

H. Lin, L. Zhang, L. Li, Ch. Jin, H. Zhou, and T. Huo, Opt. Lett. 33, 485 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. L. Voronov, R. Cambie, E. M. Gullikson, V. V. Yashchuk, H. A. Padmore, Yu. P. Pershin, A. G. Ponomarenko, and V. V. Kondratenko, Proc. SPIE 7077, 707708 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

D. L. Voronov, R. Cambie, R. M. Feshchenko, E. Gullikson, H. A. Padmore, A. V. Vinogradov, and V. V. Yashchuk, Proc. SPIE 6705, 67050E (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

P. P. Naulleau, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, E. M. Gullikson, P. Mirkarimi, F. Salmassi, and E. Spiller, Opt. Commun. 229, 109 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Heilmann, C. G. Chen, P. T. Konkola, and M. L. Schattenburg, Nanotechnology 15, S504 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, R. Lenke, H. Kierey, T. W. Barbee, Jr., and W. R. Hunter, Opt. Lett. 29, 2914 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

R. A. Wind and M. A. Hines, Surf. Sci. 460, 21 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

A. E. Franke, M. L. Schattenburg, E. M. Gullikson, J. Cottam, S. M. Kahn, and A. Rasmussen, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2940 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

J. H. Underwood, C. Kh. Malek, E. M. Gullikson, and M. Krumrey, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2147 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. R. Hunter, and R. G. Cruddace, Phys. Scr. 41, 418 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

Anderson, E. H.

P. P. Naulleau, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, E. M. Gullikson, P. Mirkarimi, F. Salmassi, and E. Spiller, Opt. Commun. 229, 109 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barbee, T. W.

Cambie, R.

D. L. Voronov, R. Cambie, E. M. Gullikson, V. V. Yashchuk, H. A. Padmore, Yu. P. Pershin, A. G. Ponomarenko, and V. V. Kondratenko, Proc. SPIE 7077, 707708 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Voronov, R. Cambie, R. M. Feshchenko, E. Gullikson, H. A. Padmore, A. V. Vinogradov, and V. V. Yashchuk, Proc. SPIE 6705, 67050E (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. G.

R. K. Heilmann, C. G. Chen, P. T. Konkola, and M. L. Schattenburg, Nanotechnology 15, S504 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cottam, J.

A. E. Franke, M. L. Schattenburg, E. M. Gullikson, J. Cottam, S. M. Kahn, and A. Rasmussen, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2940 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cruddace, R. G.

Feshchenko, R. M.

D. L. Voronov, R. Cambie, R. M. Feshchenko, E. Gullikson, H. A. Padmore, A. V. Vinogradov, and V. V. Yashchuk, Proc. SPIE 6705, 67050E (2007).
[CrossRef]

Franke, A. E.

A. E. Franke, M. L. Schattenburg, E. M. Gullikson, J. Cottam, S. M. Kahn, and A. Rasmussen, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2940 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E.

D. L. Voronov, R. Cambie, R. M. Feshchenko, E. Gullikson, H. A. Padmore, A. V. Vinogradov, and V. V. Yashchuk, Proc. SPIE 6705, 67050E (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E. M.

D. L. Voronov, R. Cambie, E. M. Gullikson, V. V. Yashchuk, H. A. Padmore, Yu. P. Pershin, A. G. Ponomarenko, and V. V. Kondratenko, Proc. SPIE 7077, 707708 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Naulleau, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, E. M. Gullikson, P. Mirkarimi, F. Salmassi, and E. Spiller, Opt. Commun. 229, 109 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Franke, M. L. Schattenburg, E. M. Gullikson, J. Cottam, S. M. Kahn, and A. Rasmussen, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2940 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Underwood, C. Kh. Malek, E. M. Gullikson, and M. Krumrey, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2147 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Heidemann, K. F.

Heilmann, R. K.

R. K. Heilmann, C. G. Chen, P. T. Konkola, and M. L. Schattenburg, Nanotechnology 15, S504 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hines, M. A.

R. A. Wind and M. A. Hines, Surf. Sci. 460, 21 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, W. R.

Huo, T.

Jin, Ch.

Kahn, S. M.

A. E. Franke, M. L. Schattenburg, E. M. Gullikson, J. Cottam, S. M. Kahn, and A. Rasmussen, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2940 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kierey, H.

Kondratenko, V. V.

D. L. Voronov, R. Cambie, E. M. Gullikson, V. V. Yashchuk, H. A. Padmore, Yu. P. Pershin, A. G. Ponomarenko, and V. V. Kondratenko, Proc. SPIE 7077, 707708 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Konkola, P. T.

R. K. Heilmann, C. G. Chen, P. T. Konkola, and M. L. Schattenburg, Nanotechnology 15, S504 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, M. P.

Krumrey, M.

J. H. Underwood, C. Kh. Malek, E. M. Gullikson, and M. Krumrey, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2147 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lenke, R.

Li, L.

Liddle, J. A.

P. P. Naulleau, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, E. M. Gullikson, P. Mirkarimi, F. Salmassi, and E. Spiller, Opt. Commun. 229, 109 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H.

Malek, C. Kh.

J. H. Underwood, C. Kh. Malek, E. M. Gullikson, and M. Krumrey, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2147 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mata Mendez, O.

Maystre, D.

Mirkarimi, P.

P. P. Naulleau, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, E. M. Gullikson, P. Mirkarimi, F. Salmassi, and E. Spiller, Opt. Commun. 229, 109 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Naulleau, P. P.

P. P. Naulleau, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, E. M. Gullikson, P. Mirkarimi, F. Salmassi, and E. Spiller, Opt. Commun. 229, 109 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Padmore, H. A.

D. L. Voronov, R. Cambie, E. M. Gullikson, V. V. Yashchuk, H. A. Padmore, Yu. P. Pershin, A. G. Ponomarenko, and V. V. Kondratenko, Proc. SPIE 7077, 707708 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Voronov, R. Cambie, R. M. Feshchenko, E. Gullikson, H. A. Padmore, A. V. Vinogradov, and V. V. Yashchuk, Proc. SPIE 6705, 67050E (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Warwick, H. A. Padmore, D. Voronov, and V. Yashchuk, presented at the Tenth International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 27 Sept.–2 Oct. 2009.

Pershin, Yu. P.

D. L. Voronov, R. Cambie, E. M. Gullikson, V. V. Yashchuk, H. A. Padmore, Yu. P. Pershin, A. G. Ponomarenko, and V. V. Kondratenko, Proc. SPIE 7077, 707708 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Philippe, P.

Ponomarenko, A. G.

D. L. Voronov, R. Cambie, E. M. Gullikson, V. V. Yashchuk, H. A. Padmore, Yu. P. Pershin, A. G. Ponomarenko, and V. V. Kondratenko, Proc. SPIE 7077, 707708 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rasmussen, A.

A. E. Franke, M. L. Schattenburg, E. M. Gullikson, J. Cottam, S. M. Kahn, and A. Rasmussen, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2940 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rife, J. C.

J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. R. Hunter, and R. G. Cruddace, Phys. Scr. 41, 418 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Salmassi, F.

P. P. Naulleau, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, E. M. Gullikson, P. Mirkarimi, F. Salmassi, and E. Spiller, Opt. Commun. 229, 109 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schattenburg, M. L.

R. K. Heilmann, C. G. Chen, P. T. Konkola, and M. L. Schattenburg, Nanotechnology 15, S504 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Franke, M. L. Schattenburg, E. M. Gullikson, J. Cottam, S. M. Kahn, and A. Rasmussen, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2940 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Spiller, E.

P. P. Naulleau, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, E. M. Gullikson, P. Mirkarimi, F. Salmassi, and E. Spiller, Opt. Commun. 229, 109 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Underwood, J. H.

J. H. Underwood, C. Kh. Malek, E. M. Gullikson, and M. Krumrey, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2147 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Valette, S.

Vinogradov, A. V.

D. L. Voronov, R. Cambie, R. M. Feshchenko, E. Gullikson, H. A. Padmore, A. V. Vinogradov, and V. V. Yashchuk, Proc. SPIE 6705, 67050E (2007).
[CrossRef]

Voronov, D.

T. Warwick, H. A. Padmore, D. Voronov, and V. Yashchuk, presented at the Tenth International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 27 Sept.–2 Oct. 2009.

Voronov, D. L.

D. L. Voronov, R. Cambie, E. M. Gullikson, V. V. Yashchuk, H. A. Padmore, Yu. P. Pershin, A. G. Ponomarenko, and V. V. Kondratenko, Proc. SPIE 7077, 707708 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Voronov, R. Cambie, R. M. Feshchenko, E. Gullikson, H. A. Padmore, A. V. Vinogradov, and V. V. Yashchuk, Proc. SPIE 6705, 67050E (2007).
[CrossRef]

Warwick, T.

T. Warwick, H. A. Padmore, D. Voronov, and V. Yashchuk, presented at the Tenth International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 27 Sept.–2 Oct. 2009.

Wind, R. A.

R. A. Wind and M. A. Hines, Surf. Sci. 460, 21 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yashchuk, V.

T. Warwick, H. A. Padmore, D. Voronov, and V. Yashchuk, presented at the Tenth International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 27 Sept.–2 Oct. 2009.

Yashchuk, V. V.

D. L. Voronov, R. Cambie, E. M. Gullikson, V. V. Yashchuk, H. A. Padmore, Yu. P. Pershin, A. G. Ponomarenko, and V. V. Kondratenko, Proc. SPIE 7077, 707708 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Voronov, R. Cambie, R. M. Feshchenko, E. Gullikson, H. A. Padmore, A. V. Vinogradov, and V. V. Yashchuk, Proc. SPIE 6705, 67050E (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

Zhou, H.

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

A. E. Franke, M. L. Schattenburg, E. M. Gullikson, J. Cottam, S. M. Kahn, and A. Rasmussen, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2940 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

R. K. Heilmann, C. G. Chen, P. T. Konkola, and M. L. Schattenburg, Nanotechnology 15, S504 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

P. P. Naulleau, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, E. M. Gullikson, P. Mirkarimi, F. Salmassi, and E. Spiller, Opt. Commun. 229, 109 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Scr. (1)

J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. R. Hunter, and R. G. Cruddace, Phys. Scr. 41, 418 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

D. L. Voronov, R. Cambie, E. M. Gullikson, V. V. Yashchuk, H. A. Padmore, Yu. P. Pershin, A. G. Ponomarenko, and V. V. Kondratenko, Proc. SPIE 7077, 707708 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Voronov, R. Cambie, R. M. Feshchenko, E. Gullikson, H. A. Padmore, A. V. Vinogradov, and V. V. Yashchuk, Proc. SPIE 6705, 67050E (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

J. H. Underwood, C. Kh. Malek, E. M. Gullikson, and M. Krumrey, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2147 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Sci. (1)

R. A. Wind and M. A. Hines, Surf. Sci. 460, 21 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

http://www-cxro.lbl.gov/beamlines/6.3.2.

http://www.pcgrate.com.

Proceedings of the Workshop on Soft X-Ray Science in the Next Millennium: The Future of Photon-In/Photon-Out Experiments (2000), http://www.phys.utk.edu/WPWebSite/ewp_workshop_X-Ray_Report.pdf.
[PubMed]

T. Warwick, H. A. Padmore, D. Voronov, and V. Yashchuk, presented at the Tenth International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 27 Sept.–2 Oct. 2009.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SEM images of the 200 nm grating (a) after KOH etch and nitride mask removal, (b) after nub removal, and (c) cross-section TEM image of the grating coated with the Mo/Si ML.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Morphology of the groove surface of the blazed gratings after (a) KOH etching, (b) nub removal, and (c) ML deposition.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Ideal profile of a silicon blazed grating (dashed curve) and averaged profiles measured with AFM for the grating before (dotted curve) and after (solid curve) ML deposition.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Diffraction from the Mo/Si-30 ML-coated grating measured at an incidence angle of 11 ° and wavelength of 13.6 nm .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental (circles) and simulated dependence of efficiency of the third order on the wavelength. The simulation was performed for an ideal groove profile (dashed curve), and experimental profiles before (dotted curve) and after (solid curve) deposition of the Mo/Si-30 ML. The interface width of 0.9 nm rms was taken into account for all the simulations.

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