Volume x-ray gratings consisting of a multilayer coating deposited on a blazed substrate can diffract with very high efficiency, even in high orders if diffraction conditions in-plane (grating) and out-of-plane (Bragg multilayer) are met simultaneously. This remarkable property, however, depends critically on the ability to create a structure with near atomic perfection. In this Letter we report on a method to produce these structures. We report measurements that show, for a grating diffracting in the third order, a diffraction efficiency of 37.6% at a wavelength of . This work now shows a direct route to achieving high diffraction efficiency in high order at wavelengths throughout the soft x-ray energy range.
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