Abstract

We report on a novel zoom lens with no moving parts in the form of a switchable Galilean telescope. This zoom telescope consists of two flat liquid-crystal diffractive lenses with apertures of 10mm that can each take on the focal lengths of 50 and +100cm, with a spacing of 50cm and, hence, a zoom ratio of 4×. The lenses are driven using a low-voltage ac source with 1.6V and exhibit millisecond switching times. The spectral characteristic of this diffractive zoom system is evaluated for light sources of various bandwidths. Potential applications for this technology include a zoom lens with no moving parts for camera phones and medical imaging devices.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. Schwiegerling and C. Paleta-Toxqui, Appl. Opt. 48, 1932 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. C. Park, S. H. Lee, and J. G. Kim, J. Opt. Soc. Korea 13, 206 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Kuiper, B. H. W. Hendriks, J. F. Suijver, S. Deladi, and I. Helwegen, Proc. SPIE 6466, 64660F (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Peng, J. Chen, and S. Zhuang, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 2644 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Y. Zhang, N. Justis, and Y. H. Lo, Opt. Commun. 249, 175 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Seidl, J. Knobbe, and H. Grüger, Appl. Opt. 48, 4097 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. V. Wick, “Active optical zoom system,” U.S. patent 6,977,777 (June 18, 2004).
  8. D. V. Wick, T. Martinez, D. M. Payne, W. C. Sweatt, and S. R. Restaino, Proc. SPIE 5798, 151 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. E. Bagwell, D. V. Wick, R. Batchko, J. D. Mansell, T. Martinez, S. Serati, G. Sharp, and J. Schwiegerling, Proc. SPIE 6289, 628908 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Martinez, D. V. Wick, D. M. Payne, J. T. Baker, and S. R. Restaino, Proc. SPIE 5234, 375 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. C. Tam, Opt. Lett. 17, 369 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. P. Valley, D. L. Mathine, M. R. Dodge, J. Schwiegerling, G. Peyman, and N. Peyghambarian, Opt. Lett. 35, 336(2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. W. Sweeney and G. E. Sommargren, Appl. Opt. 34, 2469 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

2009

2008

2007

S. Kuiper, B. H. W. Hendriks, J. F. Suijver, S. Deladi, and I. Helwegen, Proc. SPIE 6466, 64660F (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

B. E. Bagwell, D. V. Wick, R. Batchko, J. D. Mansell, T. Martinez, S. Serati, G. Sharp, and J. Schwiegerling, Proc. SPIE 6289, 628908 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

D. V. Wick, T. Martinez, D. M. Payne, W. C. Sweatt, and S. R. Restaino, Proc. SPIE 5798, 151 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Zhang, N. Justis, and Y. H. Lo, Opt. Commun. 249, 175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

T. Martinez, D. V. Wick, D. M. Payne, J. T. Baker, and S. R. Restaino, Proc. SPIE 5234, 375 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1995

1992

Bagwell, B. E.

B. E. Bagwell, D. V. Wick, R. Batchko, J. D. Mansell, T. Martinez, S. Serati, G. Sharp, and J. Schwiegerling, Proc. SPIE 6289, 628908 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baker, J. T.

T. Martinez, D. V. Wick, D. M. Payne, J. T. Baker, and S. R. Restaino, Proc. SPIE 5234, 375 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Batchko, R.

B. E. Bagwell, D. V. Wick, R. Batchko, J. D. Mansell, T. Martinez, S. Serati, G. Sharp, and J. Schwiegerling, Proc. SPIE 6289, 628908 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

Deladi, S.

S. Kuiper, B. H. W. Hendriks, J. F. Suijver, S. Deladi, and I. Helwegen, Proc. SPIE 6466, 64660F (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dodge, M. R.

Grüger, H.

Helwegen, I.

S. Kuiper, B. H. W. Hendriks, J. F. Suijver, S. Deladi, and I. Helwegen, Proc. SPIE 6466, 64660F (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hendriks, B. H. W.

S. Kuiper, B. H. W. Hendriks, J. F. Suijver, S. Deladi, and I. Helwegen, Proc. SPIE 6466, 64660F (2007).
[CrossRef]

Justis, N.

D. Y. Zhang, N. Justis, and Y. H. Lo, Opt. Commun. 249, 175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. G.

Knobbe, J.

Kuiper, S.

S. Kuiper, B. H. W. Hendriks, J. F. Suijver, S. Deladi, and I. Helwegen, Proc. SPIE 6466, 64660F (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

Lo, Y. H.

D. Y. Zhang, N. Justis, and Y. H. Lo, Opt. Commun. 249, 175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mansell, J. D.

B. E. Bagwell, D. V. Wick, R. Batchko, J. D. Mansell, T. Martinez, S. Serati, G. Sharp, and J. Schwiegerling, Proc. SPIE 6289, 628908 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, T.

B. E. Bagwell, D. V. Wick, R. Batchko, J. D. Mansell, T. Martinez, S. Serati, G. Sharp, and J. Schwiegerling, Proc. SPIE 6289, 628908 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Wick, T. Martinez, D. M. Payne, W. C. Sweatt, and S. R. Restaino, Proc. SPIE 5798, 151 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Martinez, D. V. Wick, D. M. Payne, J. T. Baker, and S. R. Restaino, Proc. SPIE 5234, 375 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mathine, D. L.

Paleta-Toxqui, C.

Park, S. C.

Payne, D. M.

D. V. Wick, T. Martinez, D. M. Payne, W. C. Sweatt, and S. R. Restaino, Proc. SPIE 5798, 151 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Martinez, D. V. Wick, D. M. Payne, J. T. Baker, and S. R. Restaino, Proc. SPIE 5234, 375 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Peng, R.

Peyghambarian, N.

Peyman, G.

Restaino, S. R.

D. V. Wick, T. Martinez, D. M. Payne, W. C. Sweatt, and S. R. Restaino, Proc. SPIE 5798, 151 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Martinez, D. V. Wick, D. M. Payne, J. T. Baker, and S. R. Restaino, Proc. SPIE 5234, 375 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schwiegerling, J.

Seidl, K.

Serati, S.

B. E. Bagwell, D. V. Wick, R. Batchko, J. D. Mansell, T. Martinez, S. Serati, G. Sharp, and J. Schwiegerling, Proc. SPIE 6289, 628908 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sharp, G.

B. E. Bagwell, D. V. Wick, R. Batchko, J. D. Mansell, T. Martinez, S. Serati, G. Sharp, and J. Schwiegerling, Proc. SPIE 6289, 628908 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sommargren, G. E.

Suijver, J. F.

S. Kuiper, B. H. W. Hendriks, J. F. Suijver, S. Deladi, and I. Helwegen, Proc. SPIE 6466, 64660F (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sweatt, W. C.

D. V. Wick, T. Martinez, D. M. Payne, W. C. Sweatt, and S. R. Restaino, Proc. SPIE 5798, 151 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sweeney, D. W.

Tam, E. C.

Valley, P.

Wick, D. V.

B. E. Bagwell, D. V. Wick, R. Batchko, J. D. Mansell, T. Martinez, S. Serati, G. Sharp, and J. Schwiegerling, Proc. SPIE 6289, 628908 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Wick, T. Martinez, D. M. Payne, W. C. Sweatt, and S. R. Restaino, Proc. SPIE 5798, 151 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Martinez, D. V. Wick, D. M. Payne, J. T. Baker, and S. R. Restaino, Proc. SPIE 5234, 375 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Wick, “Active optical zoom system,” U.S. patent 6,977,777 (June 18, 2004).

Zhang, D. Y.

D. Y. Zhang, N. Justis, and Y. H. Lo, Opt. Commun. 249, 175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhuang, S.

Appl. Opt.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Opt. Soc. Korea

Opt. Commun.

D. Y. Zhang, N. Justis, and Y. H. Lo, Opt. Commun. 249, 175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

S. Kuiper, B. H. W. Hendriks, J. F. Suijver, S. Deladi, and I. Helwegen, Proc. SPIE 6466, 64660F (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Wick, T. Martinez, D. M. Payne, W. C. Sweatt, and S. R. Restaino, Proc. SPIE 5798, 151 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Bagwell, D. V. Wick, R. Batchko, J. D. Mansell, T. Martinez, S. Serati, G. Sharp, and J. Schwiegerling, Proc. SPIE 6289, 628908 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Martinez, D. V. Wick, D. M. Payne, J. T. Baker, and S. R. Restaino, Proc. SPIE 5234, 375 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. V. Wick, “Active optical zoom system,” U.S. patent 6,977,777 (June 18, 2004).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Top view of the Fresnel zone electrode structure near the center with 10 mm diameter and 100 cm focal length. Odd and even electrodes are patterned on two separate ITO layers, isolated by an Si O 2 layer containing the vias that connect the bus lines and electrodes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Microfabrication steps: 1, sputter Cr on an ITO glass substrate; 2, pattern the alignment marks; 3, pattern the odd electrodes; 4, sputter Si O 2 ; 5, pattern the first vias; 6, sputter ITO; 7, pattern the even electrodes; 8, sputter Si O 2 ; 9, pattern the second vias; 10, sputter ITO; 11, pattern the bus lines (all films are 150 nm thick.).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diffractive lens driver consisting of L = 8 potentiometers. V in is a square wave of 1.6 V and 1 KHz .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic of the nonmechanical bifocal zoom lens in (a) reversed Galilean (zoom out) and (b) Galilean (zoom in) configurations. Fixed-focus refractive lenses (blue ellipse) have the same focal length, but the focal length of the diffractive lenses (green rectangles) is switched electronically. Graph not to scale.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Images taken with the zoom lens when (a) zoomed out, (b) no zoom, and (c) zoomed in, demonstrating 4 × overall magnification.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Images taken with a white light source passing through different bandpass filters with bandwidths of (a) 10, (b) 30, (c) 90, and (d) 300 nm .

Metrics