Abstract

Linear chains of metallic nanoparticles that are sequentially rotated about the chain axis display interesting polarization-sensitive optical properties. Such twisted chains posses and extend properties of chiral gratings and general periodic gratings. They are characterized by high anisotropy and polarization sensitivity, and have subwavelength transverse dimensions. These structures are shown to support transverse modes with distinct propagation wavenumbers and radiation properties, including slow (bound) and fast (radiative) modes. They also have stop bands of different types, resulting from coupling between distinct transverse modes, as well as coupling with different higher-order diffraction modes.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. Oldano, E. Miraldi, and P. Taverna Valabrega, Phys. Rev. A 27, 3291 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Papakostas, A. Potts, D. M. Bagnall, S. L. Prosvirnin, H. J. Coles, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107404 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, Science 305, 74 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. Shvets, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141127 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. L. Brongersma, J. W. Hartman, and H. A. Atwater, Phys. Rev. B 62, R16356 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. H. Weber and G. W. Ford, Phys. Rev. B 70, 125429 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Alù and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. B 74, 205436 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Van Orden, Y. Fainman, and V. Lomakin, Opt. Lett. 34, 422 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Walavalkar, A. Homyk, D. M. Henry, and A. Scherer, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 124314 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Van and V. Lomakin, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 57, 1973 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids(Academic, 1998).

2010 (1)

S. Walavalkar, A. Homyk, D. M. Henry, and A. Scherer, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 124314 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

D. Van and V. Lomakin, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 57, 1973 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Van Orden, Y. Fainman, and V. Lomakin, Opt. Lett. 34, 422 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

A. Alù and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. B 74, 205436 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Shvets, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141127 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, Science 305, 74 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Weber and G. W. Ford, Phys. Rev. B 70, 125429 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. Papakostas, A. Potts, D. M. Bagnall, S. L. Prosvirnin, H. J. Coles, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107404 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

M. L. Brongersma, J. W. Hartman, and H. A. Atwater, Phys. Rev. B 62, R16356 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

C. Oldano, E. Miraldi, and P. Taverna Valabrega, Phys. Rev. A 27, 3291 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Alù, A.

A. Alù and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. B 74, 205436 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

M. L. Brongersma, J. W. Hartman, and H. A. Atwater, Phys. Rev. B 62, R16356 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bagnall, D. M.

A. Papakostas, A. Potts, D. M. Bagnall, S. L. Prosvirnin, H. J. Coles, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107404 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

M. L. Brongersma, J. W. Hartman, and H. A. Atwater, Phys. Rev. B 62, R16356 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chao, N.

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, Science 305, 74 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Churikov, V. M.

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, Science 305, 74 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coles, H. J.

A. Papakostas, A. Potts, D. M. Bagnall, S. L. Prosvirnin, H. J. Coles, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107404 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Engheta, N.

A. Alù and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. B 74, 205436 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

Ford, G. W.

W. H. Weber and G. W. Ford, Phys. Rev. B 70, 125429 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Genack, A. Z.

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, Science 305, 74 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartman, J. W.

M. L. Brongersma, J. W. Hartman, and H. A. Atwater, Phys. Rev. B 62, R16356 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Henry, D. M.

S. Walavalkar, A. Homyk, D. M. Henry, and A. Scherer, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 124314 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Homyk, A.

S. Walavalkar, A. Homyk, D. M. Henry, and A. Scherer, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 124314 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kopp, V. I.

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, Science 305, 74 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lomakin, V.

D. Van and V. Lomakin, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 57, 1973 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Van Orden, Y. Fainman, and V. Lomakin, Opt. Lett. 34, 422 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miraldi, E.

C. Oldano, E. Miraldi, and P. Taverna Valabrega, Phys. Rev. A 27, 3291 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Neugroschl, D.

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, Science 305, 74 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oldano, C.

C. Oldano, E. Miraldi, and P. Taverna Valabrega, Phys. Rev. A 27, 3291 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids(Academic, 1998).

Papakostas, A.

A. Papakostas, A. Potts, D. M. Bagnall, S. L. Prosvirnin, H. J. Coles, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107404 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Potts, A.

A. Papakostas, A. Potts, D. M. Bagnall, S. L. Prosvirnin, H. J. Coles, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107404 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prosvirnin, S. L.

A. Papakostas, A. Potts, D. M. Bagnall, S. L. Prosvirnin, H. J. Coles, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107404 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scherer, A.

S. Walavalkar, A. Homyk, D. M. Henry, and A. Scherer, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 124314 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shvets, G.

G. Shvets, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141127 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Singer, J.

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, Science 305, 74 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taverna Valabrega, P.

C. Oldano, E. Miraldi, and P. Taverna Valabrega, Phys. Rev. A 27, 3291 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Van, D.

D. Van and V. Lomakin, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 57, 1973 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Van Orden, D.

Walavalkar, S.

S. Walavalkar, A. Homyk, D. M. Henry, and A. Scherer, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 124314 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Weber, W. H.

W. H. Weber and G. W. Ford, Phys. Rev. B 70, 125429 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zheludev, N. I.

A. Papakostas, A. Potts, D. M. Bagnall, S. L. Prosvirnin, H. J. Coles, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107404 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. Shvets, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141127 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

D. Van and V. Lomakin, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 57, 1973 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Walavalkar, A. Homyk, D. M. Henry, and A. Scherer, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 124314 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

C. Oldano, E. Miraldi, and P. Taverna Valabrega, Phys. Rev. A 27, 3291 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (3)

M. L. Brongersma, J. W. Hartman, and H. A. Atwater, Phys. Rev. B 62, R16356 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Weber and G. W. Ford, Phys. Rev. B 70, 125429 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Alù and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. B 74, 205436 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. Papakostas, A. Potts, D. M. Bagnall, S. L. Prosvirnin, H. J. Coles, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107404 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, Science 305, 74 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids(Academic, 1998).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Twisted chain of nanoparticles with spacing d and twist angle ϕ 0 .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Dispersion relations of the β + and β modes for chains of lossless and lossy gold ellipsoids with spacing d = 72 nm , twist angle ϕ 0 = 18 ° , and major and minor axes of lengths of 34 and 17 nm , respectively. (b) Dispersion relations of the β mode for the same chain but with twist angle ϕ 0 = 85 ° .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Far-field radiation intensity observed a distance of 960 μm from a chain of 200 gold ellipsoids with spacing d = 72 nm , twist angle ϕ 0 = 18 ° , excited by a localized RCP source with wavelength λ = 527 nm . (b) Radiation pattern from the same chain but with spacing d = 181 nm , twist angle ϕ 0 = 48 ° , excited by an LCP localized source. Inset, radiation angle θ as a function of twist angle ϕ 0 for the radiated beam in (a) (bottom curve) and the two beams in (b) (top curves). The observed angles agree with the values predicted from the phase-matching equations with a relative error around 1%.

Equations (2)

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( I α · G rot ) p 0 = 0 , G rot = 1 2 ( G x x + + G x x i ( G x y + G x y ) G x y + + G x y + i ( G x x + G x x ) G y x + + G y x i ( G y y + G y y ) G y y + + G y y + i ( G y x + G y x ) ) .
E ( z z ^ ) = ( ( cos ( ϕ 0 z / d ) sin ( ϕ 0 z / d ) ) E x 0 + ( sin ( ϕ 0 z / d ) cos ( ϕ 0 z / d ) ) E y 0 ) e i β z = E R ( 1 i ) e i β R z + E L ( 1 i ) e i β L z ,

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