Abstract

We investigate an air-slot photonic crystal cavity for high-precision refractive index sensing. The high quality factor 2.6×104 of the cavity, along with a strong overlap between the resonant mode and the hollow core region, allows us to achieve an experimental sensitivity of 510nm per refractive index unit (RUI) and a detection limit below 1×105RUI. The device has a remarkably low sensing volume of 40 aliters, holding less than 1×106 molecules.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041112 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Asano, B. S. Song, Y. Akahane, and S. Noda, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1123 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Lončar, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4648 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. Almeida, Q. X. Xu, C. A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, Opt. Lett. 29, 1209 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. T. Robinson, C. Manolatou, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 143901 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Di Falco, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 063503 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Yamamoto, M. Notomi, H. Taniyama, E. Kuramochi, Y. Yoshikava, Y. Torii, and T. Kuga, Opt. Express 16, 13809 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. L. C. Andreani and D. Gerace, Phys. Rev. B 73, 235114(2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. N. Le Thomas, R. Houdré, M. V. Kotlyar, D. O’Brien, and T. F. Krauss, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2964 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L’Air Liquide, Division Scientifique, Encyclopédie des Gaz (Elsevier, 1976).
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    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Clergent, C. Durou, and M. Laurens, J. Chem. Eng. Data 44, 197 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

J. Gao, J. F. McMillan, M. C. Wu, J. J. Zheng, S. Assefa, and C. W. Wong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051123 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

A. Di Falco, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 063503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

T. Yamamoto, M. Notomi, H. Taniyama, E. Kuramochi, Y. Yoshikava, Y. Torii, and T. Kuga, Opt. Express 16, 13809 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Mortensen, S. Xiao, and J. H. Pedersen, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Asano, B. S. Song, Y. Akahane, and S. Noda, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Andreani and D. Gerace, Phys. Rev. B 73, 235114(2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. T. Robinson, C. Manolatou, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 143901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

M. Lončar, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4648 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

Y. Clergent, C. Durou, and M. Laurens, J. Chem. Eng. Data 44, 197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

A. C. Simmons, Opt. Commun. 25, 211 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Akahane, Y.

T. Asano, B. S. Song, Y. Akahane, and S. Noda, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, W.

Andreani, L. C.

L. C. Andreani and D. Gerace, Phys. Rev. B 73, 235114(2006).
[CrossRef]

Asano, T.

T. Asano, B. S. Song, Y. Akahane, and S. Noda, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Assefa, S.

J. Gao, J. F. McMillan, M. C. Wu, J. J. Zheng, S. Assefa, and C. W. Wong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051123 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Barrios, C. A.

Chen, L.

J. T. Robinson, C. Manolatou, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 143901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clergent, Y.

Y. Clergent, C. Durou, and M. Laurens, J. Chem. Eng. Data 44, 197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Di Falco, A.

A. Di Falco, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 063503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Durou, C.

Y. Clergent, C. Durou, and M. Laurens, J. Chem. Eng. Data 44, 197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, J.

J. Gao, J. F. McMillan, M. C. Wu, J. J. Zheng, S. Assefa, and C. W. Wong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051123 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gerace, D.

L. C. Andreani and D. Gerace, Phys. Rev. B 73, 235114(2006).
[CrossRef]

Houdré, R.

Kotlyar, M. V.

Krauss, T. F.

Kuga, T.

Kuramochi, E.

T. Yamamoto, M. Notomi, H. Taniyama, E. Kuramochi, Y. Yoshikava, Y. Torii, and T. Kuga, Opt. Express 16, 13809 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Laurens, M.

Y. Clergent, C. Durou, and M. Laurens, J. Chem. Eng. Data 44, 197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Le Thomas, N.

Lipson, M.

J. T. Robinson, C. Manolatou, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 143901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Almeida, Q. X. Xu, C. A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, Opt. Lett. 29, 1209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loncar, M.

M. Lončar, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4648 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Manolatou, C.

J. T. Robinson, C. Manolatou, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 143901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McMillan, J. F.

J. Gao, J. F. McMillan, M. C. Wu, J. J. Zheng, S. Assefa, and C. W. Wong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051123 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mitsugi, S.

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mortensen, N. A.

N. A. Mortensen, S. Xiao, and J. H. Pedersen, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

T. Asano, B. S. Song, Y. Akahane, and S. Noda, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Notomi, M.

T. Yamamoto, M. Notomi, H. Taniyama, E. Kuramochi, Y. Yoshikava, Y. Torii, and T. Kuga, Opt. Express 16, 13809 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O’Brien, D.

O’Faolain, L.

A. Di Falco, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 063503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, J. H.

N. A. Mortensen, S. Xiao, and J. H. Pedersen, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, Y.

M. Lončar, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4648 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, J. T.

J. T. Robinson, C. Manolatou, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 143901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scherer, A.

M. Lončar, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4648 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shinya, A.

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shopova, S. I.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simmons, A. C.

A. C. Simmons, Opt. Commun. 25, 211 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Song, B. S.

T. Asano, B. S. Song, Y. Akahane, and S. Noda, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suter, J. D.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanabe, T.

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Taniyama, H.

Torii, Y.

Watanabe, T.

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

White, I. M.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, C. W.

J. Gao, J. F. McMillan, M. C. Wu, J. J. Zheng, S. Assefa, and C. W. Wong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051123 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M. C.

J. Gao, J. F. McMillan, M. C. Wu, J. J. Zheng, S. Assefa, and C. W. Wong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051123 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, S.

N. A. Mortensen, S. Xiao, and J. H. Pedersen, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q. X.

Yamamoto, T.

Yoshikava, Y.

Zheng, J. J.

J. Gao, J. F. McMillan, M. C. Wu, J. J. Zheng, S. Assefa, and C. W. Wong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051123 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, H.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chim. Acta (1)

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

M. Lončar, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4648 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Di Falco, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 063503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Gao, J. F. McMillan, M. C. Wu, J. J. Zheng, S. Assefa, and C. W. Wong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051123 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Asano, B. S. Song, Y. Akahane, and S. Noda, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Eng. Data (1)

Y. Clergent, C. Durou, and M. Laurens, J. Chem. Eng. Data 44, 197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Microfluid. Nanofluid. (1)

N. A. Mortensen, S. Xiao, and J. H. Pedersen, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. C. Simmons, Opt. Commun. 25, 211 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

L. C. Andreani and D. Gerace, Phys. Rev. B 73, 235114(2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. T. Robinson, C. Manolatou, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 143901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

L’Air Liquide, Division Scientifique, Encyclopédie des Gaz (Elsevier, 1976).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Scanning electron microscopy image of the air-slot cavity. (b) Theoretical dispersion curves of the 100 and 120 nm PhC slot waveguides (solid line) shown together with the air-slot cavity resonance (dashed line). Inset: electric field distribution | E x y | of the cavity mode.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Combined end-fire imaging setup. (b) Transmission spectrum of the air-slot cavity. Insets: surface emission spectrum (left) and the far-field image (right) at the cavity resonance.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Spectral position of the cavity resonance upon exposure to He, N 2 , CO 2 , and the air. (b) Wavelength shift of the cavity resonance as a function of the refractive index ( n 1 ) of the respective gas.

Equations (1)

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S = Δ λ Δ n = Γ λ n eff ,

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