Abstract

A scheme of terahertz (THz)-wave surface-emitted difference-frequency generation (SEDFG), which lacks the drawbacks associated with the usage of periodically orientation-inverted structures, is proposed. It is shown that both material birefringence of the bulk LiNbO3 crystal and modal birefringence of GaAs/AlAs waveguide are sufficient to obtain SEDFG up to a frequency of ~3THz. The simplicity of the proposed scheme, along with the fact that there is a much smaller THz-wave decay in nonlinear crystal, makes it a good candidate for the practical realization of efficient THz generation. The use of a GaAs waveguide with an oxidized AlAs layer is proposed for enhanced THz-wave SEDFG in the vicinity of the GaAs polariton resonance at 8THz.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y. R. Shen, Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 207 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. J. Ding and I. B. Zotova, Opt. Quantum Electron. 32, 531 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Kawase, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, in Solid-State Mid-Infrared Laser Sources, T.Sorokina and K.Vodopyanov, eds. (Springer, 2003), pp. 397–423.
  4. K. L. Vodopyanov and Y. H. Avetisyan, Opt. Lett. 33, 2314 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. Molter, M. Theuer, and R. Beigang, Opt. Express 17, 6623 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. L. Vodopyanov, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 11 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. M. Staus, T. F. Kuech, and L. McCaughan, Opt. Express 18, 2332 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Geiser, C. Pflugl, A. Belyanin, Q. J. Wang, N. Yu, M. Belkin, T. Edamura, H. Kan, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, Proc. SPIE 7616, 76160R (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Avetisyan, Y. Sasaki, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. B 73, 511 (2001).
  10. C. Weiss, G. Torosyan, Y. H. Avetisyan, and R. Beigang, Opt. Lett. 26, 563 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Sasaki, Yu. H. Avetisyan, K. Kawase, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3323 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. J. Ding, Opt. Lett. 35, 262 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. Vakhshoori, M. C. Wu, and S. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 422 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. Suizu, T. Shibuya, T. Akiba, T. Tutui, C. Otani, and K. Kawase, Opt. Express 16, 7493 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. T. C. Kleckner, A. S. Helmy, K. Zeaiter, D. C. Hutchings, and J. S. Aitchison, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 280 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, S. Crouzy, N. Laurent, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2587 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Schall, H. Helm, and S. R. Keiding, Int. J. Infrared Millimet. Waves 20, 595 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Gehrsitz, F. K. Reinhart, C. Gourgon, N. Herres, A. Vonlanthen, and H. Sigg, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7825 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (3)

M. Geiser, C. Pflugl, A. Belyanin, Q. J. Wang, N. Yu, M. Belkin, T. Edamura, H. Kan, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, Proc. SPIE 7616, 76160R (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Ding, Opt. Lett. 35, 262 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Staus, T. F. Kuech, and L. McCaughan, Opt. Express 18, 2332 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (3)

2006 (1)

T. C. Kleckner, A. S. Helmy, K. Zeaiter, D. C. Hutchings, and J. S. Aitchison, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 280 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

Y. Sasaki, Yu. H. Avetisyan, K. Kawase, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3323 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

Y. Avetisyan, Y. Sasaki, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. B 73, 511 (2001).

C. Weiss, G. Torosyan, Y. H. Avetisyan, and R. Beigang, Opt. Lett. 26, 563 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

S. Gehrsitz, F. K. Reinhart, C. Gourgon, N. Herres, A. Vonlanthen, and H. Sigg, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7825 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Ding and I. B. Zotova, Opt. Quantum Electron. 32, 531 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. Schall, H. Helm, and S. R. Keiding, Int. J. Infrared Millimet. Waves 20, 595 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, S. Crouzy, N. Laurent, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2587 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

D. Vakhshoori, M. C. Wu, and S. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 422 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

Y. R. Shen, Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 207 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, J. S.

T. C. Kleckner, A. S. Helmy, K. Zeaiter, D. C. Hutchings, and J. S. Aitchison, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 280 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Akiba, T.

Avetisyan, Y.

Y. Avetisyan, Y. Sasaki, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. B 73, 511 (2001).

Avetisyan, Y. H.

Avetisyan, Yu. H.

Y. Sasaki, Yu. H. Avetisyan, K. Kawase, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3323 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beigang, R.

Belkin, M.

M. Geiser, C. Pflugl, A. Belyanin, Q. J. Wang, N. Yu, M. Belkin, T. Edamura, H. Kan, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, Proc. SPIE 7616, 76160R (2010).
[CrossRef]

Belyanin, A.

M. Geiser, C. Pflugl, A. Belyanin, Q. J. Wang, N. Yu, M. Belkin, T. Edamura, H. Kan, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, Proc. SPIE 7616, 76160R (2010).
[CrossRef]

Berger, V.

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, S. Crouzy, N. Laurent, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2587 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

M. Geiser, C. Pflugl, A. Belyanin, Q. J. Wang, N. Yu, M. Belkin, T. Edamura, H. Kan, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, Proc. SPIE 7616, 76160R (2010).
[CrossRef]

Crouzy, S.

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, S. Crouzy, N. Laurent, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2587 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ding, Y. J.

Y. J. Ding, Opt. Lett. 35, 262 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Ding and I. B. Zotova, Opt. Quantum Electron. 32, 531 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Edamura, T.

M. Geiser, C. Pflugl, A. Belyanin, Q. J. Wang, N. Yu, M. Belkin, T. Edamura, H. Kan, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, Proc. SPIE 7616, 76160R (2010).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

M. Geiser, C. Pflugl, A. Belyanin, Q. J. Wang, N. Yu, M. Belkin, T. Edamura, H. Kan, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, Proc. SPIE 7616, 76160R (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fiore, A.

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, S. Crouzy, N. Laurent, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2587 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, M.

M. Geiser, C. Pflugl, A. Belyanin, Q. J. Wang, N. Yu, M. Belkin, T. Edamura, H. Kan, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, Proc. SPIE 7616, 76160R (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gehrsitz, S.

S. Gehrsitz, F. K. Reinhart, C. Gourgon, N. Herres, A. Vonlanthen, and H. Sigg, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7825 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Geiser, M.

M. Geiser, C. Pflugl, A. Belyanin, Q. J. Wang, N. Yu, M. Belkin, T. Edamura, H. Kan, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, Proc. SPIE 7616, 76160R (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gourgon, C.

S. Gehrsitz, F. K. Reinhart, C. Gourgon, N. Herres, A. Vonlanthen, and H. Sigg, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7825 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Helm, H.

M. Schall, H. Helm, and S. R. Keiding, Int. J. Infrared Millimet. Waves 20, 595 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Helmy, A. S.

T. C. Kleckner, A. S. Helmy, K. Zeaiter, D. C. Hutchings, and J. S. Aitchison, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 280 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Herres, N.

S. Gehrsitz, F. K. Reinhart, C. Gourgon, N. Herres, A. Vonlanthen, and H. Sigg, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7825 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hutchings, D. C.

T. C. Kleckner, A. S. Helmy, K. Zeaiter, D. C. Hutchings, and J. S. Aitchison, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 280 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ito, H.

Y. Sasaki, Yu. H. Avetisyan, K. Kawase, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3323 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Avetisyan, Y. Sasaki, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. B 73, 511 (2001).

K. Kawase, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, in Solid-State Mid-Infrared Laser Sources, T.Sorokina and K.Vodopyanov, eds. (Springer, 2003), pp. 397–423.

Kan, H.

M. Geiser, C. Pflugl, A. Belyanin, Q. J. Wang, N. Yu, M. Belkin, T. Edamura, H. Kan, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, Proc. SPIE 7616, 76160R (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kawase, K.

K. Suizu, T. Shibuya, T. Akiba, T. Tutui, C. Otani, and K. Kawase, Opt. Express 16, 7493 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sasaki, Yu. H. Avetisyan, K. Kawase, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3323 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawase, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, in Solid-State Mid-Infrared Laser Sources, T.Sorokina and K.Vodopyanov, eds. (Springer, 2003), pp. 397–423.

Keiding, S. R.

M. Schall, H. Helm, and S. R. Keiding, Int. J. Infrared Millimet. Waves 20, 595 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kleckner, T. C.

T. C. Kleckner, A. S. Helmy, K. Zeaiter, D. C. Hutchings, and J. S. Aitchison, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 280 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuech, T. F.

Laurent, N.

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, S. Crouzy, N. Laurent, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2587 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McCaughan, L.

Molter, D.

Nagle, J.

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, S. Crouzy, N. Laurent, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2587 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Otani, C.

Pflugl, C.

M. Geiser, C. Pflugl, A. Belyanin, Q. J. Wang, N. Yu, M. Belkin, T. Edamura, H. Kan, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, Proc. SPIE 7616, 76160R (2010).
[CrossRef]

Reinhart, F. K.

S. Gehrsitz, F. K. Reinhart, C. Gourgon, N. Herres, A. Vonlanthen, and H. Sigg, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7825 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rosencher, E.

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, S. Crouzy, N. Laurent, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2587 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, Y.

Y. Sasaki, Yu. H. Avetisyan, K. Kawase, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3323 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Avetisyan, Y. Sasaki, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. B 73, 511 (2001).

Schall, M.

M. Schall, H. Helm, and S. R. Keiding, Int. J. Infrared Millimet. Waves 20, 595 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. R.

Y. R. Shen, Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 207 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Shibuya, T.

Shikata, J.

K. Kawase, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, in Solid-State Mid-Infrared Laser Sources, T.Sorokina and K.Vodopyanov, eds. (Springer, 2003), pp. 397–423.

Sigg, H.

S. Gehrsitz, F. K. Reinhart, C. Gourgon, N. Herres, A. Vonlanthen, and H. Sigg, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7825 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Staus, C. M.

Suizu, K.

Theuer, M.

Torosyan, G.

Tutui, T.

Vakhshoori, D.

D. Vakhshoori, M. C. Wu, and S. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 422 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Vodopyanov, K. L.

Vonlanthen, A.

S. Gehrsitz, F. K. Reinhart, C. Gourgon, N. Herres, A. Vonlanthen, and H. Sigg, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7825 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q. J.

M. Geiser, C. Pflugl, A. Belyanin, Q. J. Wang, N. Yu, M. Belkin, T. Edamura, H. Kan, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, Proc. SPIE 7616, 76160R (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

D. Vakhshoori, M. C. Wu, and S. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 422 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, C.

Wittmann, A.

M. Geiser, C. Pflugl, A. Belyanin, Q. J. Wang, N. Yu, M. Belkin, T. Edamura, H. Kan, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, Proc. SPIE 7616, 76160R (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M. C.

D. Vakhshoori, M. C. Wu, and S. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 422 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Yu, N.

M. Geiser, C. Pflugl, A. Belyanin, Q. J. Wang, N. Yu, M. Belkin, T. Edamura, H. Kan, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, Proc. SPIE 7616, 76160R (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zeaiter, K.

T. C. Kleckner, A. S. Helmy, K. Zeaiter, D. C. Hutchings, and J. S. Aitchison, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 280 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zotova, I. B.

Y. J. Ding and I. B. Zotova, Opt. Quantum Electron. 32, 531 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

Y. Avetisyan, Y. Sasaki, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. B 73, 511 (2001).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

Y. Sasaki, Yu. H. Avetisyan, K. Kawase, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3323 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Vakhshoori, M. C. Wu, and S. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 422 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, S. Crouzy, N. Laurent, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2587 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. C. Kleckner, A. S. Helmy, K. Zeaiter, D. C. Hutchings, and J. S. Aitchison, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 280 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Infrared Millimet. Waves (1)

M. Schall, H. Helm, and S. R. Keiding, Int. J. Infrared Millimet. Waves 20, 595 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Gehrsitz, F. K. Reinhart, C. Gourgon, N. Herres, A. Vonlanthen, and H. Sigg, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7825 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

K. L. Vodopyanov, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. J. Ding and I. B. Zotova, Opt. Quantum Electron. 32, 531 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. Geiser, C. Pflugl, A. Belyanin, Q. J. Wang, N. Yu, M. Belkin, T. Edamura, H. Kan, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, Proc. SPIE 7616, 76160R (2010).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. R. Shen, Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 207 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

K. Kawase, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, in Solid-State Mid-Infrared Laser Sources, T.Sorokina and K.Vodopyanov, eds. (Springer, 2003), pp. 397–423.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic view of THz-wave generation in Li Nb O 3 crystal.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic illustration of THz-wave SEDFG in GaAs/AlAs waveguide.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Angle of THz emission versus generated wavelength in Li Nb O 3 crystal (solid) and GaAs/AlAs waveguide (dashed).

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

cos θ = K NL k THz ,
n 1 e ω 1 n 2 ο ω 2 = 0.
λ THz n g ο ( λ 1 ) Δ n 1 λ 1 ,

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