Abstract

We report a new type of optical biosensor capable of differentiating between bulk and surface perturbations of the ambient refractive index as well as between specific and nonspecific binding of molecules on the sensor surface. The proposed detection scheme is based on tracking the shifts of hybridized bonding and antibonding optical modes in coupled optical microcavities (photonic molecules). We demonstrate that by using two measurements of spectral shifts it is possible to discriminate between surface and volume index perturbation, to detect specific target molecules in a complex environment and to estimate the thickness of thin layers of adsorbed molecules.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, Nature Meth. 5, 591 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. M. Armani and K. J. Vahala, Opt. Lett. 31, 1896 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. Y. Chao and L. J. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1527 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Noto, F. Vollmer, D. Keng, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, Opt. Lett. 30, 510 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. Beier, G. Coté, and K. Meissner, Ann. Biomed. Eng. 37, 1974 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Francois and M. Himmelhaus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 031101 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, D. Braun, I. Teraoka, and A. Libchaber, Biophys. J. 85, 1974 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, S. M. Ünlü, and B. Goldberg, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. V. Boriskina, in Photonic Microresonator Research and Applications, I.Chremmos, O.Schwelb, and N.Uzunoglu, eds. (Springer, Dordrecht, 2010).
  10. D. W. Mackowski, Proc. R. Soc. Edinb., A 433, 599 (1991).
  11. S. V. Boriskina, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 1565 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. V. Boriskina, Opt. Lett. 32, 1557 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

H. Beier, G. Coté, and K. Meissner, Ann. Biomed. Eng. 37, 1974 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Francois and M. Himmelhaus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 031101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, Nature Meth. 5, 591 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, S. M. Ünlü, and B. Goldberg, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Armani and K. J. Vahala, Opt. Lett. 31, 1896 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. V. Boriskina, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 1565 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2003 (2)

C. Y. Chao and L. J. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1527 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, D. Braun, I. Teraoka, and A. Libchaber, Biophys. J. 85, 1974 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

D. W. Mackowski, Proc. R. Soc. Edinb., A 433, 599 (1991).

Aldridge, J. C.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, S. M. Ünlü, and B. Goldberg, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Anthes-Washburn, M.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, S. M. Ünlü, and B. Goldberg, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Armani, A. M.

Arnold, S.

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, Nature Meth. 5, 591 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Noto, F. Vollmer, D. Keng, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, Opt. Lett. 30, 510 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, D. Braun, I. Teraoka, and A. Libchaber, Biophys. J. 85, 1974 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beier, H.

H. Beier, G. Coté, and K. Meissner, Ann. Biomed. Eng. 37, 1974 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boriskina, S. V.

S. V. Boriskina, Opt. Lett. 32, 1557 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. V. Boriskina, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 1565 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Boriskina, in Photonic Microresonator Research and Applications, I.Chremmos, O.Schwelb, and N.Uzunoglu, eds. (Springer, Dordrecht, 2010).

Braun, D.

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, D. Braun, I. Teraoka, and A. Libchaber, Biophys. J. 85, 1974 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chao, C. Y.

C. Y. Chao and L. J. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1527 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chbouki, N.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, S. M. Ünlü, and B. Goldberg, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, S. M. Ünlü, and B. Goldberg, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Coté, G.

H. Beier, G. Coté, and K. Meissner, Ann. Biomed. Eng. 37, 1974 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Desai, T. A.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, S. M. Ünlü, and B. Goldberg, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Francois, A.

A. Francois and M. Himmelhaus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 031101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gill, D.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, S. M. Ünlü, and B. Goldberg, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, B.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, S. M. Ünlü, and B. Goldberg, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Guo, L. J.

C. Y. Chao and L. J. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1527 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Himmelhaus, M.

A. Francois and M. Himmelhaus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 031101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hryniewicz, J.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, S. M. Ünlü, and B. Goldberg, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Keng, D.

King, O.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, S. M. Ünlü, and B. Goldberg, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Libchaber, A.

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, D. Braun, I. Teraoka, and A. Libchaber, Biophys. J. 85, 1974 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Little, B. E.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, S. M. Ünlü, and B. Goldberg, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mackowski, D. W.

D. W. Mackowski, Proc. R. Soc. Edinb., A 433, 599 (1991).

Meissner, K.

H. Beier, G. Coté, and K. Meissner, Ann. Biomed. Eng. 37, 1974 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noto, M.

Popat, K. C.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, S. M. Ünlü, and B. Goldberg, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Teraoka, I.

M. Noto, F. Vollmer, D. Keng, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, Opt. Lett. 30, 510 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, D. Braun, I. Teraoka, and A. Libchaber, Biophys. J. 85, 1974 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ünlü, S. M.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, S. M. Ünlü, and B. Goldberg, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

Van, V.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, S. M. Ünlü, and B. Goldberg, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vollmer, F.

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, Nature Meth. 5, 591 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Noto, F. Vollmer, D. Keng, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, Opt. Lett. 30, 510 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, D. Braun, I. Teraoka, and A. Libchaber, Biophys. J. 85, 1974 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yalcin, A.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, S. M. Ünlü, and B. Goldberg, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Biomed. Eng. (1)

H. Beier, G. Coté, and K. Meissner, Ann. Biomed. Eng. 37, 1974 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. Francois and M. Himmelhaus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 031101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Chao and L. J. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1527 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J. (1)

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, D. Braun, I. Teraoka, and A. Libchaber, Biophys. J. 85, 1974 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, S. M. Ünlü, and B. Goldberg, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature Meth. (1)

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, Nature Meth. 5, 591 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. R. Soc. Edinb., A (1)

D. W. Mackowski, Proc. R. Soc. Edinb., A 433, 599 (1991).

Other (1)

S. V. Boriskina, in Photonic Microresonator Research and Applications, I.Chremmos, O.Schwelb, and N.Uzunoglu, eds. (Springer, Dordrecht, 2010).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

WG modes resonant peaks in the plane-wave scattering spectra of (a) a single silica 10 μm diameter microsphere and (b) double-microsphere PMs with varying air-gap widths w. Electric field distributions of (c) the fundamental WG 37 , 1 mode in the microsphere and (d), (e) the hybridized bonding and antibonding supermodes in the PM with w = 300 nm .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Shift of the resonant peak in the microsphere spectrum caused by (a) the change of the bulk ambient refractive index and (b) the absorption of a thin index-matched dielectric layer of varied thickness. The labels correspond to (a) the ambient index value n a and (b) the layer thickness d. WG mode resonant wavelength as a function of (c) the ambient refractive index and (d) the thin layer thickness.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Shifts of the resonant peaks in the PM spectrum caused by (a) the change of the bulk ambient refractive index and (b) the absorption of a thin index-matched dielectric layer of varied thickness on the surface of one of the microspheres (squares) and of both microspheres (circles). WG supermodes resonant wavelengths as a function of (c) the ambient refractive index and (d) the thin layer thickness.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of the changes in the separation between the resonant wavelengths of the B and AB PM supermodes caused by the ambient refractive index variation (triangles), by the specific binding of molecules to the surface of one of the microspheres (squares), and by a non specific binding to both the microspheres (circles). The numbers represent the slopes of the corresponding curves.

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