Abstract

We demonstrate a liquid iris diaphragm using dielectric force, enabling its aperture to vary from 4mm at the resting state to 1.5mm at 160Vrms. The liquid iris is a packaged optical component comprised of transparent oil, opaque ink, and a set of driving electrodes on a glass substrate. The iris aperture shrinks with the dielectric force, which is exerted on the interface between the two nonconductive liquids. The transmittance was measured to exceed 85% with no antireflection coatings over the spectrum of visible light. The maximum electric power consumed is measured to be 5.7mW.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. E. Kim and G. M. Whitesides, Chem. Mater. 7, 1257 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2009 (5)

2008 (3)

2007 (2)

C. G. Tsai, C. M. Hsieh, and J. A. Yeh, Sens. Actuator A Phys. 139, 343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Cheng and J. A. Yeh, Opt. Express 15, 7140 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

2000 (1)

C. Decamps and J. Coninck, Langmuir 16, 10150 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

E. Tatarova, E. Stoykova, K. Bachev, and I. Zhelyazkov, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 26, 167 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

M. T. Harris and O. A. Basaran, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 170, 308 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Kim and G. M. Whitesides, Chem. Mater. 7, 1257 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Asundi, A. K.

Bachev, K.

E. Tatarova, E. Stoykova, K. Bachev, and I. Zhelyazkov, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 26, 167 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Basaran, O. A.

M. T. Harris and O. A. Basaran, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 170, 308 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Blake, T. D.

T. D. Blake, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 299, 1 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bryant, R. C.

M. J. O’Brien, R. A. Colleluori, and R. C. Bryant, “Iris diaphragm for high speed photographic printers,” U.S. patent 5993079 (Nov. 30, 1999).

Chang, C. A.

Chau, F.

Chen, C. N.

C. G. Tsai, C. N. Chen, L. S. Cheng, C. C. Cheng, J. T. Yang, and J. A. Yeh, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1396 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, C. C.

C. G. Tsai, C. N. Chen, L. S. Cheng, C. C. Cheng, J. T. Yang, and J. A. Yeh, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1396 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Cheng and J. A. Yeh, Opt. Express 15, 7140 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Cheng, C. A. Chang, and J. A. Yeh, Opt. Express 14, 10779 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, L. S.

C. G. Tsai, C. N. Chen, L. S. Cheng, C. C. Cheng, J. T. Yang, and J. A. Yeh, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1396 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chikazawa, Y.

Y. Chikazawa and T. Gotoh, “Variable iris using charged opaque particles,” U.S. patent application 20070205671 (Sept. 6, 2007).

Cho, S. H.

Colleluori, R. A.

M. J. O’Brien, R. A. Colleluori, and R. C. Bryant, “Iris diaphragm for high speed photographic printers,” U.S. patent 5993079 (Nov. 30, 1999).

Coninck, J.

C. Decamps and J. Coninck, Langmuir 16, 10150 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Decamps, C.

C. Decamps and J. Coninck, Langmuir 16, 10150 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Feiwen, L.

Gotoh, T.

Y. Chikazawa and T. Gotoh, “Variable iris using charged opaque particles,” U.S. patent application 20070205671 (Sept. 6, 2007).

Guangya, Z.

Harris, M. T.

M. T. Harris and O. A. Basaran, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 170, 308 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, C. C.

C. C. Harrison and J. Schnitzer, “Diaphragm for photographic cameras,” U.S. patent 21470 (Sept. 7, 1858).

Hongbin, Y.

Hsieh, C. M.

C. G. Tsai, C. M. Hsieh, and J. A. Yeh, Sens. Actuator A Phys. 139, 343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, D.

Kim, E.

E. Kim and G. M. Whitesides, Chem. Mater. 7, 1257 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Krogmann, F.

F. Krogmann, W. Monch, and H. Zappe, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 17, 1501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, A. S.

Leung, H.

Lin, Y. J.

Lo, Y. H.

Low, C. L.

Monch, W.

F. Krogmann, W. Monch, and H. Zappe, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 17, 1501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, N. T.

O’Brien, M. J.

M. J. O’Brien, R. A. Colleluori, and R. C. Bryant, “Iris diaphragm for high speed photographic printers,” U.S. patent 5993079 (Nov. 30, 1999).

Qiao, W.

Ren, H.

Schnitzer, J.

C. C. Harrison and J. Schnitzer, “Diaphragm for photographic cameras,” U.S. patent 21470 (Sept. 7, 1858).

Siong, C. F.

Song, C.

Stoykova, E.

E. Tatarova, E. Stoykova, K. Bachev, and I. Zhelyazkov, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 26, 167 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Su, X.

Tatarova, E.

E. Tatarova, E. Stoykova, K. Bachev, and I. Zhelyazkov, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 26, 167 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, C. G.

C. G. Tsai, C. N. Chen, L. S. Cheng, C. C. Cheng, J. T. Yang, and J. A. Yeh, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1396 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Tsai, C. M. Hsieh, and J. A. Yeh, Sens. Actuator A Phys. 139, 343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, F. S.

Whitesides, G. M.

E. Kim and G. M. Whitesides, Chem. Mater. 7, 1257 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. T.

Yang, J. T.

C. G. Tsai, C. N. Chen, L. S. Cheng, C. C. Cheng, J. T. Yang, and J. A. Yeh, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1396 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, J. A.

C. G. Tsai, C. N. Chen, L. S. Cheng, C. C. Cheng, J. T. Yang, and J. A. Yeh, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1396 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Tsai, C. M. Hsieh, and J. A. Yeh, Sens. Actuator A Phys. 139, 343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Cheng and J. A. Yeh, Opt. Express 15, 7140 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Cheng, C. A. Chang, and J. A. Yeh, Opt. Express 14, 10779 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H.

Zappe, H.

F. Krogmann, W. Monch, and H. Zappe, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 17, 1501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhelyazkov, I.

E. Tatarova, E. Stoykova, K. Bachev, and I. Zhelyazkov, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 26, 167 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, G.

Chem. Mater. (1)

E. Kim and G. M. Whitesides, Chem. Mater. 7, 1257 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

C. G. Tsai, C. N. Chen, L. S. Cheng, C. C. Cheng, J. T. Yang, and J. A. Yeh, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1396 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. (1)

E. Tatarova, E. Stoykova, K. Bachev, and I. Zhelyazkov, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 26, 167 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Colloid Interface Sci. (2)

M. T. Harris and O. A. Basaran, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 170, 308 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Blake, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 299, 1 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Microelectromech. Syst. (1)

F. Krogmann, W. Monch, and H. Zappe, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 17, 1501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (1)

C. Decamps and J. Coninck, Langmuir 16, 10150 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Sens. Actuator A Phys. (1)

C. G. Tsai, C. M. Hsieh, and J. A. Yeh, Sens. Actuator A Phys. 139, 343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

C. C. Harrison and J. Schnitzer, “Diaphragm for photographic cameras,” U.S. patent 21470 (Sept. 7, 1858).

M. J. O’Brien, R. A. Colleluori, and R. C. Bryant, “Iris diaphragm for high speed photographic printers,” U.S. patent 5993079 (Nov. 30, 1999).

Y. Chikazawa and T. Gotoh, “Variable iris using charged opaque particles,” U.S. patent application 20070205671 (Sept. 6, 2007).

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MPG (2639 KB)     
» Media 2: MPG (2397 KB)     

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics of a dielectric liquid iris: (a) the opaque ink is confined by the confinement ring at the resting state to form a circular aperture, and (b) the aperture of the liquid iris shrinks owing to the dielectric force.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Packaged dielectric liquid iris.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured actuated aperture [A(V)] of the dielectric liquid iris with respect to voltage applied. Curve fitting the measured data shows that the actuated aperture is linearly proportional to the square of the applied voltage. (Media 1 and 2 show the video clips at the applied voltages of 80 and 120 V rms , respectively).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured light transmittance of the dielectric liquid iris over the spectrum of visible light.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Measured Characteristics of Dielectric Liquid Iris

Equations (1)

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F diel = ε 0 2 [ ε 2 ( E n 2 ) 2 ε 1 ( E n 2 ) 1 + ( ε 1 ε 2 ) E t 2 ] ,

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