Abstract

High-efficiency collection of photons emitted by a point source over a wide field of view (FoV) is crucial for many applications. Multiscale optics offer improved light collection by utilizing small optical components placed close to the optical source, while maintaining a wide FoV provided by conventional imaging optics. In this work, we demonstrate collection efficiency of 26% of photons emitted by a pointlike source using a micromirror fabricated in silicon with no significant decrease in collection efficiency over a 10mm object space.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Matsuyama, Y. Ohmura, and D. M. Williamson, Proc. SPIE 6154, 615403 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. W. Streed, B. G. Norton, J. J. Chapman, and D. Kielpinski, Quantum Inf. Comput. 9, 203 (2009).
  3. G. Shu, M. R. Dietrich, N. Kurz, and B. B. Blinov, J. Phys. B 42, 154005 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Maiwald, D. Leibfried, J. Britton, J. C. Bergquist, G. Leuchs, and D. J. Wineland, Nature Phys. 5, 551 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Luo, D. Hayes, T. A. Manning, D. N. Matsukevich, P. Maunz, S. Olmschenk, J. D. Sterk, and C. Monroe, Fortschr. Phys. 57, 1133 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. J. Brady and N. Hagen, Opt. Express 17, 10659 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. W. Nagourney, J. Sandberg, and H. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 2797 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Th. Sauter, W. Neuhauser, R. Blatt, and P. E. Toschek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1696 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. C. Bergquist, R. G. Hulet, W. M. Itano, and D. J. Wineland, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1699 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. J. Puppels, F. F. M. de Mul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robert-Nicoud, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, and T. M. Jovin, Nature 347, 301 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Kim and C. Kim, Quantum Inf. Comput. 9, 181 (2009).
  13. M. Trupke, E. A. Hinds, S. Eriksson, E. A. Curtis, Z. Moktadir, E. Kukharenka, and M. Kraft, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211106 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Robbins and B. Schwartz, J. Electrochem. Soc. 107, 108 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  15. B. E. King, “Quantum state engineering and information processing with trapped ions,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Colorado, Boulder, 1999).

2009 (6)

E. W. Streed, B. G. Norton, J. J. Chapman, and D. Kielpinski, Quantum Inf. Comput. 9, 203 (2009).

G. Shu, M. R. Dietrich, N. Kurz, and B. B. Blinov, J. Phys. B 42, 154005 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Maiwald, D. Leibfried, J. Britton, J. C. Bergquist, G. Leuchs, and D. J. Wineland, Nature Phys. 5, 551 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Luo, D. Hayes, T. A. Manning, D. N. Matsukevich, P. Maunz, S. Olmschenk, J. D. Sterk, and C. Monroe, Fortschr. Phys. 57, 1133 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Brady and N. Hagen, Opt. Express 17, 10659 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kim and C. Kim, Quantum Inf. Comput. 9, 181 (2009).

2006 (1)

T. Matsuyama, Y. Ohmura, and D. M. Williamson, Proc. SPIE 6154, 615403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

M. Trupke, E. A. Hinds, S. Eriksson, E. A. Curtis, Z. Moktadir, E. Kukharenka, and M. Kraft, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Puppels, F. F. M. de Mul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robert-Nicoud, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, and T. M. Jovin, Nature 347, 301 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (3)

W. Nagourney, J. Sandberg, and H. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 2797 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Sauter, W. Neuhauser, R. Blatt, and P. E. Toschek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1696 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Bergquist, R. G. Hulet, W. M. Itano, and D. J. Wineland, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1699 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1960 (1)

H. Robbins and B. Schwartz, J. Electrochem. Soc. 107, 108 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Arndt-Jovin, D. J.

G. J. Puppels, F. F. M. de Mul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robert-Nicoud, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, and T. M. Jovin, Nature 347, 301 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergquist, J. C.

R. Maiwald, D. Leibfried, J. Britton, J. C. Bergquist, G. Leuchs, and D. J. Wineland, Nature Phys. 5, 551 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Bergquist, R. G. Hulet, W. M. Itano, and D. J. Wineland, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1699 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blatt, R.

Th. Sauter, W. Neuhauser, R. Blatt, and P. E. Toschek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1696 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blinov, B. B.

G. Shu, M. R. Dietrich, N. Kurz, and B. B. Blinov, J. Phys. B 42, 154005 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brady, D. J.

Britton, J.

R. Maiwald, D. Leibfried, J. Britton, J. C. Bergquist, G. Leuchs, and D. J. Wineland, Nature Phys. 5, 551 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chapman, J. J.

E. W. Streed, B. G. Norton, J. J. Chapman, and D. Kielpinski, Quantum Inf. Comput. 9, 203 (2009).

Curtis, E. A.

M. Trupke, E. A. Hinds, S. Eriksson, E. A. Curtis, Z. Moktadir, E. Kukharenka, and M. Kraft, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

de Mul, F. F. M.

G. J. Puppels, F. F. M. de Mul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robert-Nicoud, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, and T. M. Jovin, Nature 347, 301 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dehmelt, H.

W. Nagourney, J. Sandberg, and H. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 2797 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Denk, W.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dietrich, M. R.

G. Shu, M. R. Dietrich, N. Kurz, and B. B. Blinov, J. Phys. B 42, 154005 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eriksson, S.

M. Trupke, E. A. Hinds, S. Eriksson, E. A. Curtis, Z. Moktadir, E. Kukharenka, and M. Kraft, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Greve, J.

G. J. Puppels, F. F. M. de Mul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robert-Nicoud, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, and T. M. Jovin, Nature 347, 301 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hagen, N.

Hayes, D.

L. Luo, D. Hayes, T. A. Manning, D. N. Matsukevich, P. Maunz, S. Olmschenk, J. D. Sterk, and C. Monroe, Fortschr. Phys. 57, 1133 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hinds, E. A.

M. Trupke, E. A. Hinds, S. Eriksson, E. A. Curtis, Z. Moktadir, E. Kukharenka, and M. Kraft, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hulet, R. G.

J. C. Bergquist, R. G. Hulet, W. M. Itano, and D. J. Wineland, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1699 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itano, W. M.

J. C. Bergquist, R. G. Hulet, W. M. Itano, and D. J. Wineland, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1699 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jovin, T. M.

G. J. Puppels, F. F. M. de Mul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robert-Nicoud, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, and T. M. Jovin, Nature 347, 301 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kielpinski, D.

E. W. Streed, B. G. Norton, J. J. Chapman, and D. Kielpinski, Quantum Inf. Comput. 9, 203 (2009).

Kim, C.

J. Kim and C. Kim, Quantum Inf. Comput. 9, 181 (2009).

Kim, J.

J. Kim and C. Kim, Quantum Inf. Comput. 9, 181 (2009).

King, B. E.

B. E. King, “Quantum state engineering and information processing with trapped ions,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Colorado, Boulder, 1999).

Kraft, M.

M. Trupke, E. A. Hinds, S. Eriksson, E. A. Curtis, Z. Moktadir, E. Kukharenka, and M. Kraft, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kukharenka, E.

M. Trupke, E. A. Hinds, S. Eriksson, E. A. Curtis, Z. Moktadir, E. Kukharenka, and M. Kraft, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, N.

G. Shu, M. R. Dietrich, N. Kurz, and B. B. Blinov, J. Phys. B 42, 154005 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leibfried, D.

R. Maiwald, D. Leibfried, J. Britton, J. C. Bergquist, G. Leuchs, and D. J. Wineland, Nature Phys. 5, 551 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leuchs, G.

R. Maiwald, D. Leibfried, J. Britton, J. C. Bergquist, G. Leuchs, and D. J. Wineland, Nature Phys. 5, 551 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Luo, L.

L. Luo, D. Hayes, T. A. Manning, D. N. Matsukevich, P. Maunz, S. Olmschenk, J. D. Sterk, and C. Monroe, Fortschr. Phys. 57, 1133 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Maiwald, R.

R. Maiwald, D. Leibfried, J. Britton, J. C. Bergquist, G. Leuchs, and D. J. Wineland, Nature Phys. 5, 551 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Manning, T. A.

L. Luo, D. Hayes, T. A. Manning, D. N. Matsukevich, P. Maunz, S. Olmschenk, J. D. Sterk, and C. Monroe, Fortschr. Phys. 57, 1133 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Matsukevich, D. N.

L. Luo, D. Hayes, T. A. Manning, D. N. Matsukevich, P. Maunz, S. Olmschenk, J. D. Sterk, and C. Monroe, Fortschr. Phys. 57, 1133 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Matsuyama, T.

T. Matsuyama, Y. Ohmura, and D. M. Williamson, Proc. SPIE 6154, 615403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Maunz, P.

L. Luo, D. Hayes, T. A. Manning, D. N. Matsukevich, P. Maunz, S. Olmschenk, J. D. Sterk, and C. Monroe, Fortschr. Phys. 57, 1133 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moktadir, Z.

M. Trupke, E. A. Hinds, S. Eriksson, E. A. Curtis, Z. Moktadir, E. Kukharenka, and M. Kraft, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Monroe, C.

L. Luo, D. Hayes, T. A. Manning, D. N. Matsukevich, P. Maunz, S. Olmschenk, J. D. Sterk, and C. Monroe, Fortschr. Phys. 57, 1133 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nagourney, W.

W. Nagourney, J. Sandberg, and H. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 2797 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neuhauser, W.

Th. Sauter, W. Neuhauser, R. Blatt, and P. E. Toschek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1696 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Norton, B. G.

E. W. Streed, B. G. Norton, J. J. Chapman, and D. Kielpinski, Quantum Inf. Comput. 9, 203 (2009).

Ohmura, Y.

T. Matsuyama, Y. Ohmura, and D. M. Williamson, Proc. SPIE 6154, 615403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Olmschenk, S.

L. Luo, D. Hayes, T. A. Manning, D. N. Matsukevich, P. Maunz, S. Olmschenk, J. D. Sterk, and C. Monroe, Fortschr. Phys. 57, 1133 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Otto, C.

G. J. Puppels, F. F. M. de Mul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robert-Nicoud, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, and T. M. Jovin, Nature 347, 301 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puppels, G. J.

G. J. Puppels, F. F. M. de Mul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robert-Nicoud, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, and T. M. Jovin, Nature 347, 301 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robbins, H.

H. Robbins and B. Schwartz, J. Electrochem. Soc. 107, 108 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Robert-Nicoud, M.

G. J. Puppels, F. F. M. de Mul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robert-Nicoud, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, and T. M. Jovin, Nature 347, 301 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sandberg, J.

W. Nagourney, J. Sandberg, and H. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 2797 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sauter, Th.

Th. Sauter, W. Neuhauser, R. Blatt, and P. E. Toschek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1696 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwartz, B.

H. Robbins and B. Schwartz, J. Electrochem. Soc. 107, 108 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Shu, G.

G. Shu, M. R. Dietrich, N. Kurz, and B. B. Blinov, J. Phys. B 42, 154005 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sterk, J. D.

L. Luo, D. Hayes, T. A. Manning, D. N. Matsukevich, P. Maunz, S. Olmschenk, J. D. Sterk, and C. Monroe, Fortschr. Phys. 57, 1133 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Streed, E. W.

E. W. Streed, B. G. Norton, J. J. Chapman, and D. Kielpinski, Quantum Inf. Comput. 9, 203 (2009).

Strickler, J. H.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toschek, P. E.

Th. Sauter, W. Neuhauser, R. Blatt, and P. E. Toschek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1696 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trupke, M.

M. Trupke, E. A. Hinds, S. Eriksson, E. A. Curtis, Z. Moktadir, E. Kukharenka, and M. Kraft, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Webb, W. W.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williamson, D. M.

T. Matsuyama, Y. Ohmura, and D. M. Williamson, Proc. SPIE 6154, 615403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wineland, D. J.

R. Maiwald, D. Leibfried, J. Britton, J. C. Bergquist, G. Leuchs, and D. J. Wineland, Nature Phys. 5, 551 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Bergquist, R. G. Hulet, W. M. Itano, and D. J. Wineland, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1699 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Trupke, E. A. Hinds, S. Eriksson, E. A. Curtis, Z. Moktadir, E. Kukharenka, and M. Kraft, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fortschr. Phys. (1)

L. Luo, D. Hayes, T. A. Manning, D. N. Matsukevich, P. Maunz, S. Olmschenk, J. D. Sterk, and C. Monroe, Fortschr. Phys. 57, 1133 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

H. Robbins and B. Schwartz, J. Electrochem. Soc. 107, 108 (1960).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B (1)

G. Shu, M. R. Dietrich, N. Kurz, and B. B. Blinov, J. Phys. B 42, 154005 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

G. J. Puppels, F. F. M. de Mul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robert-Nicoud, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, and T. M. Jovin, Nature 347, 301 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Phys. (1)

R. Maiwald, D. Leibfried, J. Britton, J. C. Bergquist, G. Leuchs, and D. J. Wineland, Nature Phys. 5, 551 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

W. Nagourney, J. Sandberg, and H. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 2797 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Sauter, W. Neuhauser, R. Blatt, and P. E. Toschek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1696 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Bergquist, R. G. Hulet, W. M. Itano, and D. J. Wineland, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1699 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

T. Matsuyama, Y. Ohmura, and D. M. Williamson, Proc. SPIE 6154, 615403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Quantum Inf. Comput. (2)

E. W. Streed, B. G. Norton, J. J. Chapman, and D. Kielpinski, Quantum Inf. Comput. 9, 203 (2009).

J. Kim and C. Kim, Quantum Inf. Comput. 9, 181 (2009).

Science (1)

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

B. E. King, “Quantum state engineering and information processing with trapped ions,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Colorado, Boulder, 1999).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup with a macroscopic F / 2 imaging system and a large NA micromirror (inset), using a fluorescent microbead as a point source.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Plot of system F / # with (circle) and without (squares) the micromirror compared to theory [Eq. (1)]. Images of the bead (b) without and (c) with the micromirror.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Cross-sectional profile of a similar micromirror measured by SEM (dotted curve), sixth-order even polynomial fit (solid curve), and K = 1 parabolic fit (dashed curve). The inset shows the data near the bottom of the micromirror. (b) The simulated collection efficiency as the bead is moved away from the focal point of the mirror along the x and z directions.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured collection efficiency versus distance of the bead–micromirror pair from the optical axis relative to the on-axis collection efficiency. Inset images show distortion of bead–micromirror pair with Δ x of (a) 0 mm , (b) 3 mm , (c) 5 mm , and (d) 7 mm from the optical axis.

Equations (1)

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η 1 2 [ 1 cos ( arctan ( 1 2 F / # ) ) ] .

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