Abstract

We observed multiphoton upconversion (UC) emissions from the high-energy states (I11/22, D7/24, G9/24, D5/22, K13/22, and P3/22) of Er3+ ions in Yb3+-Er3+ codoped β-NaYF4 microcrystals under 1560nm excitation. Analysis indicated that the highest-order emissions came from 11-photon UC processes. In the codoped system, the energy transfer (ET) from Er3+(I11/24) to Yb3+(F5/22) and subsequently the back ET from Yb3+ to Er3+ played important roles in populating these high-energy states of Yb3+ and Er3+. Several different UC processes work simultaneously to populate excited Er3+ in this codoped sample.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Hehlen, K. W. Krmer, H. Gdel, R. McFarlane, and R. Schwartz, Phys. Rev. B 49, 12475 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. F. Suyver, J. Grimm, M. K. Van Veen, D. Biner, K. W. Krmer, and H. Gdel, J. Lumin. 117, 1 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. F. Suyver, J. Grimm, K. W. Krmer, and H. U. Gdel, J. Lumin. 114, 53 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Mita, K. Hirama, N. Ando, H. Yamamoto, and S. Shionoya, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4703 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Vetrone, J. Boyer, J. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 661 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. X. Qu, H. Song, X. Bai, G. Pan, B. Dong, H. Zhao, F. Wang, and R. Qin, Inorg. Chem. 47, 9654 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. L. Daz-Torres, E. De la Rosa-Cruz, P. Salas, and C. Angeles-Chavez, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 37, 2489 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Ivanova, F. Pell, A. Tkachuk, M. F. Joubert, Y. Guyot, and V. P. Gapontzev, J. Lumin. 128, 914 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Ivanova and F. Pell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 1930 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. X. Chen, Opt. Commun. 242, 503 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. Wang, W. Qin, L. Wang, G. Wei, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, Opt. Express 16, 11907 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lthi, H. U. Gdel, and M. P. Hehlen, Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. Zheng, L. Wang, D. Zhang, D. Zhao, and W. Qin, Opt. Express 18, 2934 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. A. Morrison and R. P. Leavitt, in Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths (North Holland, 1982), pp. 522523.
  20. G. Chen, H. Liang, H. Liu, G. Somesfalean, and Z. Zhang, Opt. Express 17, 16366 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

2009 (4)

2008 (5)

2006 (1)

J. F. Suyver, J. Grimm, M. K. Van Veen, D. Biner, K. W. Krmer, and H. Gdel, J. Lumin. 117, 1 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. F. Suyver, J. Grimm, K. W. Krmer, and H. U. Gdel, J. Lumin. 114, 53 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

F. Vetrone, J. Boyer, J. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, Opt. Commun. 242, 503 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Daz-Torres, E. De la Rosa-Cruz, P. Salas, and C. Angeles-Chavez, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 37, 2489 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lthi, H. U. Gdel, and M. P. Hehlen, Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. Hehlen, K. W. Krmer, H. Gdel, R. McFarlane, and R. Schwartz, Phys. Rev. B 49, 12475 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

Y. Mita, K. Hirama, N. Ando, H. Yamamoto, and S. Shionoya, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4703 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Aarts, L.

L. Aarts, B. van der Ende, and A. Meijerink, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 023522 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ando, N.

Y. Mita, K. Hirama, N. Ando, H. Yamamoto, and S. Shionoya, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4703 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Angeles-Chavez, C.

L. Daz-Torres, E. De la Rosa-Cruz, P. Salas, and C. Angeles-Chavez, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 37, 2489 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bai, X.

X. Qu, H. Song, X. Bai, G. Pan, B. Dong, H. Zhao, F. Wang, and R. Qin, Inorg. Chem. 47, 9654 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bettinelli, M.

F. Vetrone, J. Boyer, J. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Biner, D.

J. F. Suyver, J. Grimm, M. K. Van Veen, D. Biner, K. W. Krmer, and H. Gdel, J. Lumin. 117, 1 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boyer, J.

F. Vetrone, J. Boyer, J. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cao, C.

Capobianco, J.

F. Vetrone, J. Boyer, J. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Carnall, W. T.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

Chen, X.

X. Chen, Opt. Commun. 242, 503 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Daz-Torres, L.

L. Daz-Torres, E. De la Rosa-Cruz, P. Salas, and C. Angeles-Chavez, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 37, 2489 (2004).
[CrossRef]

De la Rosa-Cruz, E.

L. Daz-Torres, E. De la Rosa-Cruz, P. Salas, and C. Angeles-Chavez, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 37, 2489 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dong, B.

X. Qu, H. Song, X. Bai, G. Pan, B. Dong, H. Zhao, F. Wang, and R. Qin, Inorg. Chem. 47, 9654 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fields, P. R.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Gamelin, D. R.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lthi, H. U. Gdel, and M. P. Hehlen, Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gapontzev, V. P.

S. Ivanova, F. Pell, A. Tkachuk, M. F. Joubert, Y. Guyot, and V. P. Gapontzev, J. Lumin. 128, 914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gdel, H.

J. F. Suyver, J. Grimm, M. K. Van Veen, D. Biner, K. W. Krmer, and H. Gdel, J. Lumin. 117, 1 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Hehlen, K. W. Krmer, H. Gdel, R. McFarlane, and R. Schwartz, Phys. Rev. B 49, 12475 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gdel, H. U.

J. F. Suyver, J. Grimm, K. W. Krmer, and H. U. Gdel, J. Lumin. 114, 53 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lthi, H. U. Gdel, and M. P. Hehlen, Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Grimm, J.

J. F. Suyver, J. Grimm, M. K. Van Veen, D. Biner, K. W. Krmer, and H. Gdel, J. Lumin. 117, 1 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Suyver, J. Grimm, K. W. Krmer, and H. U. Gdel, J. Lumin. 114, 53 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Guyot, Y.

S. Ivanova, F. Pell, A. Tkachuk, M. F. Joubert, Y. Guyot, and V. P. Gapontzev, J. Lumin. 128, 914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

He, C.

Hehlen, M.

M. Hehlen, K. W. Krmer, H. Gdel, R. McFarlane, and R. Schwartz, Phys. Rev. B 49, 12475 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hehlen, M. P.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lthi, H. U. Gdel, and M. P. Hehlen, Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hirama, K.

Y. Mita, K. Hirama, N. Ando, H. Yamamoto, and S. Shionoya, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4703 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ivanova, S.

S. Ivanova and F. Pell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 1930 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Ivanova, F. Pell, A. Tkachuk, M. F. Joubert, Y. Guyot, and V. P. Gapontzev, J. Lumin. 128, 914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Joubert, M. F.

S. Ivanova, F. Pell, A. Tkachuk, M. F. Joubert, Y. Guyot, and V. P. Gapontzev, J. Lumin. 128, 914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, R.

Krmer, K. W.

J. F. Suyver, J. Grimm, M. K. Van Veen, D. Biner, K. W. Krmer, and H. Gdel, J. Lumin. 117, 1 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Suyver, J. Grimm, K. W. Krmer, and H. U. Gdel, J. Lumin. 114, 53 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Hehlen, K. W. Krmer, H. Gdel, R. McFarlane, and R. Schwartz, Phys. Rev. B 49, 12475 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Leavitt, R. P.

C. A. Morrison and R. P. Leavitt, in Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths (North Holland, 1982), pp. 522523.

Liang, H.

Liu, H.

Lthi, S. R.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lthi, H. U. Gdel, and M. P. Hehlen, Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

McFarlane, R.

M. Hehlen, K. W. Krmer, H. Gdel, R. McFarlane, and R. Schwartz, Phys. Rev. B 49, 12475 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Meijerink, A.

L. Aarts, B. van der Ende, and A. Meijerink, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 023522 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mita, Y.

Y. Mita, K. Hirama, N. Ando, H. Yamamoto, and S. Shionoya, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4703 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Morrison, C. A.

C. A. Morrison and R. P. Leavitt, in Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths (North Holland, 1982), pp. 522523.

Pan, G.

X. Qu, H. Song, X. Bai, G. Pan, B. Dong, H. Zhao, F. Wang, and R. Qin, Inorg. Chem. 47, 9654 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pell, F.

S. Ivanova and F. Pell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 1930 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Ivanova, F. Pell, A. Tkachuk, M. F. Joubert, Y. Guyot, and V. P. Gapontzev, J. Lumin. 128, 914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pollnau, M.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lthi, H. U. Gdel, and M. P. Hehlen, Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Qin, R.

X. Qu, H. Song, X. Bai, G. Pan, B. Dong, H. Zhao, F. Wang, and R. Qin, Inorg. Chem. 47, 9654 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qin, W.

Qu, X.

X. Qu, H. Song, X. Bai, G. Pan, B. Dong, H. Zhao, F. Wang, and R. Qin, Inorg. Chem. 47, 9654 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rajnak, K.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Salas, P.

L. Daz-Torres, E. De la Rosa-Cruz, P. Salas, and C. Angeles-Chavez, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 37, 2489 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, R.

M. Hehlen, K. W. Krmer, H. Gdel, R. McFarlane, and R. Schwartz, Phys. Rev. B 49, 12475 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shi, F.

Shionoya, S.

Y. Mita, K. Hirama, N. Ando, H. Yamamoto, and S. Shionoya, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4703 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Somesfalean, G.

Song, H.

X. Qu, H. Song, X. Bai, G. Pan, B. Dong, H. Zhao, F. Wang, and R. Qin, Inorg. Chem. 47, 9654 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Speghini, A.

F. Vetrone, J. Boyer, J. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Suyver, J. F.

J. F. Suyver, J. Grimm, M. K. Van Veen, D. Biner, K. W. Krmer, and H. Gdel, J. Lumin. 117, 1 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Suyver, J. Grimm, K. W. Krmer, and H. U. Gdel, J. Lumin. 114, 53 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tkachuk, A.

S. Ivanova, F. Pell, A. Tkachuk, M. F. Joubert, Y. Guyot, and V. P. Gapontzev, J. Lumin. 128, 914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

van der Ende, B.

L. Aarts, B. van der Ende, and A. Meijerink, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 023522 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Van Veen, M. K.

J. F. Suyver, J. Grimm, M. K. Van Veen, D. Biner, K. W. Krmer, and H. Gdel, J. Lumin. 117, 1 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vetrone, F.

F. Vetrone, J. Boyer, J. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.

X. Qu, H. Song, X. Bai, G. Pan, B. Dong, H. Zhao, F. Wang, and R. Qin, Inorg. Chem. 47, 9654 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, G.

Wang, L.

Wang, Y.

Wei, G.

Xue, X.

Yamamoto, H.

Y. Mita, K. Hirama, N. Ando, H. Yamamoto, and S. Shionoya, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4703 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D.

Zhang, J.

Zhang, Z.

Zhao, D.

Zhao, H.

X. Qu, H. Song, X. Bai, G. Pan, B. Dong, H. Zhao, F. Wang, and R. Qin, Inorg. Chem. 47, 9654 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, K.

Zhu, P.

Inorg. Chem. (1)

X. Qu, H. Song, X. Bai, G. Pan, B. Dong, H. Zhao, F. Wang, and R. Qin, Inorg. Chem. 47, 9654 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

Y. Mita, K. Hirama, N. Ando, H. Yamamoto, and S. Shionoya, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4703 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Vetrone, J. Boyer, J. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Aarts, B. van der Ende, and A. Meijerink, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 023522 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (3)

J. F. Suyver, J. Grimm, M. K. Van Veen, D. Biner, K. W. Krmer, and H. Gdel, J. Lumin. 117, 1 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Suyver, J. Grimm, K. W. Krmer, and H. U. Gdel, J. Lumin. 114, 53 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Ivanova, F. Pell, A. Tkachuk, M. F. Joubert, Y. Guyot, and V. P. Gapontzev, J. Lumin. 128, 914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

L. Daz-Torres, E. De la Rosa-Cruz, P. Salas, and C. Angeles-Chavez, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 37, 2489 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

X. Chen, Opt. Commun. 242, 503 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

M. Hehlen, K. W. Krmer, H. Gdel, R. McFarlane, and R. Schwartz, Phys. Rev. B 49, 12475 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lthi, H. U. Gdel, and M. P. Hehlen, Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

C. A. Morrison and R. P. Leavitt, in Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths (North Holland, 1982), pp. 522523.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

UC luminescence spectrum of Na YF 4 : Yb 3 + / Er 3 + microcrystals in the range of (a) 350 900 nm and (b) 900 1100 nm .4/CO

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

UV ( 230 350 nm ) UC luminescence spectrum of Na YF 4 : Yb 3 + / Er 3 + microcrystals under 1560 nm excitation. Inset are the UC emission spectra of annealed samples Na Y 0.985 - x F 4 : Yb x Er 0.015 ( x = 0.05 , 0.1, and 0.2).4/CO

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Log–log plots of emission intensity versus excitation power in Na YF 4 : Yb 3 + / Er 3 + microcrystals.4/CO

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Energy-level diagrams of Yb 3 + and Er 3 + ions, and possible UC processes.4/CO

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