Abstract

The continuing improvement of high-speed area-scan cameras has made possible the construction of parallel optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems that are competitive with the fastest demonstrated swept-source OCT systems. Unfortunately, when imaging through turbid media using a partially coherent source, parallel OCT suffers resolution loss from coherent multiple scattering, a phenomenon known as crosstalk. We demonstrate the use of a full-field OCT system employing multimode fiber in the illumination arm to reduce the spatial coherence of a partially coherent source. By reducing the spatial coherence area below the system’s lateral resolution, we create a spatial coherence gate that rejects these multiply scattered photons. We quantify the image quality and resolution improvement of this method by comparing images of a USAF test chart acquired beneath turbid phantoms using both coherent and incoherent illumination and computing the resulting modulation transfer functions. We demonstrate the feasibility of this method for imaging biological specimens by imaging a Drosophila melanogaster sample.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. W. Wolfgang, R. B. Benjamin, K. Thomas, M. E. Christoph, and H. Robert, in OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper BSuC1.
  2. B. Grajciar, M. Pircher, A. Fercher, and R. Leitgeb, Opt. Express 13, 1131 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. V. Sarunic, S. Weinberg, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 31, 1462 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. B. Karamata, M. Leutenegger, M. Laubscher, S. Bourquin, T. Lasser, and P. Lambelet, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 1380 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. Karamata, P. Lambelet, M. Laubscher, R. P. Salathe, and T. Lasser, Opt. Lett. 29, 736 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. L. Vabre, A. Dubois, and A. C. Boccara, Opt. Lett. 27, 530 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1995).
  8. A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, E. Moreno-Barriuso, R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, and H. Sattmann, Opt. Commun. 185, 57 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Kim, D. T. Miller, E. Kim, S. Oh, J. Oh, and T. E. Milner, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064034 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. L. Marks, B. J. Davis, S. A. Boppart, and P. S. Carney, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 376 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. S. Abdullaev, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 613 (1984) [Kvantovaya Elektron. 11, 904 (1984)].
    [CrossRef]
  12. J.-M. Liu, Photonic Devices (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed.(Cambridge Univ. Press, 1999).
  14. G. Stoilov and T. Dragostinov, Opt. Lasers Eng. 28, 61 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2010

W. Wolfgang, R. B. Benjamin, K. Thomas, M. E. Christoph, and H. Robert, in OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper BSuC1.

2009

2006

2005

2004

2002

2000

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, E. Moreno-Barriuso, R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, and H. Sattmann, Opt. Commun. 185, 57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed.(Cambridge Univ. Press, 1999).

1997

G. Stoilov and T. Dragostinov, Opt. Lasers Eng. 28, 61 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1995).

1984

S. S. Abdullaev, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 613 (1984) [Kvantovaya Elektron. 11, 904 (1984)].
[CrossRef]

Abdullaev, S. S.

S. S. Abdullaev, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 613 (1984) [Kvantovaya Elektron. 11, 904 (1984)].
[CrossRef]

Benjamin, R. B.

W. Wolfgang, R. B. Benjamin, K. Thomas, M. E. Christoph, and H. Robert, in OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper BSuC1.

Boccara, A. C.

Boppart, S. A.

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed.(Cambridge Univ. Press, 1999).

Bourquin, S.

Carney, P. S.

Christoph, M. E.

W. Wolfgang, R. B. Benjamin, K. Thomas, M. E. Christoph, and H. Robert, in OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper BSuC1.

Davis, B. J.

Dragostinov, T.

G. Stoilov and T. Dragostinov, Opt. Lasers Eng. 28, 61 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Drexler, W.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, E. Moreno-Barriuso, R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, and H. Sattmann, Opt. Commun. 185, 57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dubois, A.

Fercher, A.

Fercher, A. F.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, E. Moreno-Barriuso, R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, and H. Sattmann, Opt. Commun. 185, 57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Grajciar, B.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, E. Moreno-Barriuso, R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, and H. Sattmann, Opt. Commun. 185, 57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Izatt, J. A.

Karamata, B.

Kim, E.

J. Kim, D. T. Miller, E. Kim, S. Oh, J. Oh, and T. E. Milner, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064034 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

J. Kim, D. T. Miller, E. Kim, S. Oh, J. Oh, and T. E. Milner, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064034 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lambelet, P.

Lasser, T.

Laubscher, M.

Leitgeb, R.

B. Grajciar, M. Pircher, A. Fercher, and R. Leitgeb, Opt. Express 13, 1131 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, E. Moreno-Barriuso, R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, and H. Sattmann, Opt. Commun. 185, 57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Leutenegger, M.

Liu, J.-M.

J.-M. Liu, Photonic Devices (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2005).
[CrossRef]

Mandel, L.

L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1995).

Marks, D. L.

Miller, D. T.

J. Kim, D. T. Miller, E. Kim, S. Oh, J. Oh, and T. E. Milner, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064034 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Milner, T. E.

J. Kim, D. T. Miller, E. Kim, S. Oh, J. Oh, and T. E. Milner, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064034 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moreno-Barriuso, E.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, E. Moreno-Barriuso, R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, and H. Sattmann, Opt. Commun. 185, 57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Oh, J.

J. Kim, D. T. Miller, E. Kim, S. Oh, J. Oh, and T. E. Milner, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064034 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Oh, S.

J. Kim, D. T. Miller, E. Kim, S. Oh, J. Oh, and T. E. Milner, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064034 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pircher, M.

Robert, H.

W. Wolfgang, R. B. Benjamin, K. Thomas, M. E. Christoph, and H. Robert, in OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper BSuC1.

Salathe, R. P.

Sarunic, M. V.

Sattmann, H.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, E. Moreno-Barriuso, R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, and H. Sattmann, Opt. Commun. 185, 57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sticker, M.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, E. Moreno-Barriuso, R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, and H. Sattmann, Opt. Commun. 185, 57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stoilov, G.

G. Stoilov and T. Dragostinov, Opt. Lasers Eng. 28, 61 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, K.

W. Wolfgang, R. B. Benjamin, K. Thomas, M. E. Christoph, and H. Robert, in OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper BSuC1.

Vabre, L.

Weinberg, S.

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed.(Cambridge Univ. Press, 1999).

L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1995).

Wolfgang, W.

W. Wolfgang, R. B. Benjamin, K. Thomas, M. E. Christoph, and H. Robert, in OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper BSuC1.

J. Biomed. Opt.

J. Kim, D. T. Miller, E. Kim, S. Oh, J. Oh, and T. E. Milner, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064034 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Commun.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, E. Moreno-Barriuso, R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, and H. Sattmann, Opt. Commun. 185, 57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lasers Eng.

G. Stoilov and T. Dragostinov, Opt. Lasers Eng. 28, 61 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Sov. J. Quantum Electron.

S. S. Abdullaev, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 613 (1984) [Kvantovaya Elektron. 11, 904 (1984)].
[CrossRef]

Other

J.-M. Liu, Photonic Devices (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed.(Cambridge Univ. Press, 1999).

W. Wolfgang, R. B. Benjamin, K. Thomas, M. E. Christoph, and H. Robert, in OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper BSuC1.

L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1995).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

System schematic. SLD, superluminescent diode; SMF, single-mode fiber; MMFL, multimode fiber launch; MM, mode mixer and fiber spool; L 1 4 , lenses; BS, beam splitter; ND, neutral density filter; M, reference mirror on PZA. Dashed boxes represent interchangeable configurations for SCI and SII.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

USAF 1951 test chart imaged through water (top), 6 mfp (middle), and 8 mfp (bottom) scattering solutions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

MTFs from images taken beneath water and 6 and 8 mfp solutions for both SCI and SII.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

OCT projections of a Drosophila melanogaster summed over 100 μm , centered at 100 μm (top) and 200 μm (bottom) from top surface using SCI (left) and SII (right).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Fibers Used for Spatially Coherent and Incoherent Illumination and Relevant Parameters a

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

g ( Δ r ) = 2 J 1 ( k 0 NA Δ r ) k 0 NA Δ r ,
Δ r SCG = 1.22 π k 0 NA .
| L fiber N high L fiber N low | > l c M ,
N high N low = N l Δ n n core ,
L fiber > L min = 16 a 2 ( NA ) 2 l c n core λ 2 N 1 Δ n .

Metrics