Abstract

We demonstrate efficient all-optical modulation using Rb vapor confined to a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber. The intensity of a signal field participating in the four-wave-mixing process is modulated using a weak switching field. We observe 3dB of attenuation in the signal field with only 3600 photons of switching energy, corresponding to 23 photons per atomic cross section λ2/(2π). Modulation bandwidths as high as 300MHz are observed.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. M. C. Dawes, L. Illing, S. M. Clark, and D. J. Gauthier, Science 308, 672 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. A. Braje, V. Balic, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. A 68, 041801 (R) (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Bajcsy, S. Hofferberth, V. Balic, T. Peyronel, M. Hafezi, A. S. Zibrov, V. Vuletic, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203902 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. E. Harris and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3611(1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Kok, W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 135 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. D. Franson, B. C. Jacobs, and T. B. Pittman, Phys. Rev. A 70, 062302 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Schmidt and A. Imamoglu, Opt. Lett. 21, 1936 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. N. Matsuda, R. Shimizu, Y. Mitsumori, H. Kosaka, and K. Edamatsu, Nat. Photon. 3, 95 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Grangier, J. F. Roch, and G. Roger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1418 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. Kang and Y. Zhu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 093601 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. P. Londero, V. Venkataraman, A. R. Bhagwat, A. D. Slepkov, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043602 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. E. Field, K. H. Hahn, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3062 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. B. J. Dalton, R. McDuff, and P. L. Knight, J. Mod. Opt. 32, 61 (1985).
  14. M. D. Lukin, A. B. Matsko, M. Fleischhauer, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1847 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Andre, “Nonclassical states of light and atomic ensembles,” Ph.D. dissertation (Harvard University, 2005).
  16. A. D. Slepkov, A. R. Bhagwat, V. Venkataraman, P. Londero, and A. L. Gaeta, Opt. Express 16, 18976 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. R. Bhagwat, A. D. Slepkov, V. Venkataraman, P. Londero, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. A 79, 063809 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  18. W. Happer, Rev. Mod. Phys. 44, 169 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Erhard and H. Helm, Phys. Rev. A 63, 043813 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. M. Hossain, S. Mitra, B. Ray, and P. N. Ghosh, Laser Phys. 19, 2008 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (5)

N. Matsuda, R. Shimizu, Y. Mitsumori, H. Kosaka, and K. Edamatsu, Nat. Photon. 3, 95 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Londero, V. Venkataraman, A. R. Bhagwat, A. D. Slepkov, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043602 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bajcsy, S. Hofferberth, V. Balic, T. Peyronel, M. Hafezi, A. S. Zibrov, V. Vuletic, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Bhagwat, A. D. Slepkov, V. Venkataraman, P. Londero, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. A 79, 063809 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Hossain, S. Mitra, B. Ray, and P. N. Ghosh, Laser Phys. 19, 2008 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

P. Kok, W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 135 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

A. Andre, “Nonclassical states of light and atomic ensembles,” Ph.D. dissertation (Harvard University, 2005).

A. M. C. Dawes, L. Illing, S. M. Clark, and D. J. Gauthier, Science 308, 672 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

J. D. Franson, B. C. Jacobs, and T. B. Pittman, Phys. Rev. A 70, 062302 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

D. A. Braje, V. Balic, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. A 68, 041801 (R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Kang and Y. Zhu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 093601 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

M. Erhard and H. Helm, Phys. Rev. A 63, 043813 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. D. Lukin, A. B. Matsko, M. Fleischhauer, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1847 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. E. Harris and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3611(1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1991 (2)

J. E. Field, K. H. Hahn, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3062 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Grangier, J. F. Roch, and G. Roger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1418 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

B. J. Dalton, R. McDuff, and P. L. Knight, J. Mod. Opt. 32, 61 (1985).

1972 (1)

W. Happer, Rev. Mod. Phys. 44, 169 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Andre, A.

A. Andre, “Nonclassical states of light and atomic ensembles,” Ph.D. dissertation (Harvard University, 2005).

Bajcsy, M.

M. Bajcsy, S. Hofferberth, V. Balic, T. Peyronel, M. Hafezi, A. S. Zibrov, V. Vuletic, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balic, V.

M. Bajcsy, S. Hofferberth, V. Balic, T. Peyronel, M. Hafezi, A. S. Zibrov, V. Vuletic, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Braje, V. Balic, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. A 68, 041801 (R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bhagwat, A. R.

A. R. Bhagwat, A. D. Slepkov, V. Venkataraman, P. Londero, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. A 79, 063809 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Londero, V. Venkataraman, A. R. Bhagwat, A. D. Slepkov, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043602 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Slepkov, A. R. Bhagwat, V. Venkataraman, P. Londero, and A. L. Gaeta, Opt. Express 16, 18976 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Braje, D. A.

D. A. Braje, V. Balic, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. A 68, 041801 (R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

Clark, S. M.

A. M. C. Dawes, L. Illing, S. M. Clark, and D. J. Gauthier, Science 308, 672 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dalton, B. J.

B. J. Dalton, R. McDuff, and P. L. Knight, J. Mod. Opt. 32, 61 (1985).

Dawes, A. M. C.

A. M. C. Dawes, L. Illing, S. M. Clark, and D. J. Gauthier, Science 308, 672 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dowling, J. P.

P. Kok, W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 135 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Edamatsu, K.

N. Matsuda, R. Shimizu, Y. Mitsumori, H. Kosaka, and K. Edamatsu, Nat. Photon. 3, 95 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Erhard, M.

M. Erhard and H. Helm, Phys. Rev. A 63, 043813 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Field, J. E.

J. E. Field, K. H. Hahn, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3062 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleischhauer, M.

M. D. Lukin, A. B. Matsko, M. Fleischhauer, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1847 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Franson, J. D.

J. D. Franson, B. C. Jacobs, and T. B. Pittman, Phys. Rev. A 70, 062302 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, A. L.

A. R. Bhagwat, A. D. Slepkov, V. Venkataraman, P. Londero, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. A 79, 063809 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Londero, V. Venkataraman, A. R. Bhagwat, A. D. Slepkov, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043602 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Slepkov, A. R. Bhagwat, V. Venkataraman, P. Londero, and A. L. Gaeta, Opt. Express 16, 18976 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gauthier, D. J.

A. M. C. Dawes, L. Illing, S. M. Clark, and D. J. Gauthier, Science 308, 672 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghosh, P. N.

M. M. Hossain, S. Mitra, B. Ray, and P. N. Ghosh, Laser Phys. 19, 2008 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Grangier, P.

P. Grangier, J. F. Roch, and G. Roger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1418 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hafezi, M.

M. Bajcsy, S. Hofferberth, V. Balic, T. Peyronel, M. Hafezi, A. S. Zibrov, V. Vuletic, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hahn, K. H.

J. E. Field, K. H. Hahn, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3062 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Happer, W.

W. Happer, Rev. Mod. Phys. 44, 169 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Harris, S. E.

D. A. Braje, V. Balic, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. A 68, 041801 (R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3611(1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Field, K. H. Hahn, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3062 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Helm, H.

M. Erhard and H. Helm, Phys. Rev. A 63, 043813 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hofferberth, S.

M. Bajcsy, S. Hofferberth, V. Balic, T. Peyronel, M. Hafezi, A. S. Zibrov, V. Vuletic, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hossain, M. M.

M. M. Hossain, S. Mitra, B. Ray, and P. N. Ghosh, Laser Phys. 19, 2008 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Illing, L.

A. M. C. Dawes, L. Illing, S. M. Clark, and D. J. Gauthier, Science 308, 672 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imamoglu, A.

Jacobs, B. C.

J. D. Franson, B. C. Jacobs, and T. B. Pittman, Phys. Rev. A 70, 062302 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kang, H.

H. Kang and Y. Zhu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 093601 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knight, P. L.

B. J. Dalton, R. McDuff, and P. L. Knight, J. Mod. Opt. 32, 61 (1985).

Kok, P.

P. Kok, W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 135 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kosaka, H.

N. Matsuda, R. Shimizu, Y. Mitsumori, H. Kosaka, and K. Edamatsu, Nat. Photon. 3, 95 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Londero, P.

A. R. Bhagwat, A. D. Slepkov, V. Venkataraman, P. Londero, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. A 79, 063809 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Londero, V. Venkataraman, A. R. Bhagwat, A. D. Slepkov, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043602 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Slepkov, A. R. Bhagwat, V. Venkataraman, P. Londero, and A. L. Gaeta, Opt. Express 16, 18976 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lukin, M. D.

M. Bajcsy, S. Hofferberth, V. Balic, T. Peyronel, M. Hafezi, A. S. Zibrov, V. Vuletic, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Lukin, A. B. Matsko, M. Fleischhauer, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1847 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Matsko, A. B.

M. D. Lukin, A. B. Matsko, M. Fleischhauer, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1847 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Matsuda, N.

N. Matsuda, R. Shimizu, Y. Mitsumori, H. Kosaka, and K. Edamatsu, Nat. Photon. 3, 95 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McDuff, R.

B. J. Dalton, R. McDuff, and P. L. Knight, J. Mod. Opt. 32, 61 (1985).

Milburn, G. J.

P. Kok, W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 135 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mitra, S.

M. M. Hossain, S. Mitra, B. Ray, and P. N. Ghosh, Laser Phys. 19, 2008 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mitsumori, Y.

N. Matsuda, R. Shimizu, Y. Mitsumori, H. Kosaka, and K. Edamatsu, Nat. Photon. 3, 95 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Munro, W. J.

P. Kok, W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 135 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nemoto, K.

P. Kok, W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 135 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Peyronel, T.

M. Bajcsy, S. Hofferberth, V. Balic, T. Peyronel, M. Hafezi, A. S. Zibrov, V. Vuletic, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pittman, T. B.

J. D. Franson, B. C. Jacobs, and T. B. Pittman, Phys. Rev. A 70, 062302 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ralph, T. C.

P. Kok, W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 135 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ray, B.

M. M. Hossain, S. Mitra, B. Ray, and P. N. Ghosh, Laser Phys. 19, 2008 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Roch, J. F.

P. Grangier, J. F. Roch, and G. Roger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1418 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roger, G.

P. Grangier, J. F. Roch, and G. Roger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1418 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, H.

Scully, M. O.

M. D. Lukin, A. B. Matsko, M. Fleischhauer, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1847 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, R.

N. Matsuda, R. Shimizu, Y. Mitsumori, H. Kosaka, and K. Edamatsu, Nat. Photon. 3, 95 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Slepkov, A. D.

A. R. Bhagwat, A. D. Slepkov, V. Venkataraman, P. Londero, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. A 79, 063809 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Londero, V. Venkataraman, A. R. Bhagwat, A. D. Slepkov, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043602 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Slepkov, A. R. Bhagwat, V. Venkataraman, P. Londero, and A. L. Gaeta, Opt. Express 16, 18976 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Venkataraman, V.

A. R. Bhagwat, A. D. Slepkov, V. Venkataraman, P. Londero, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. A 79, 063809 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Londero, V. Venkataraman, A. R. Bhagwat, A. D. Slepkov, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043602 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Slepkov, A. R. Bhagwat, V. Venkataraman, P. Londero, and A. L. Gaeta, Opt. Express 16, 18976 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vuletic, V.

M. Bajcsy, S. Hofferberth, V. Balic, T. Peyronel, M. Hafezi, A. S. Zibrov, V. Vuletic, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, Y.

S. E. Harris and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3611(1998).
[CrossRef]

Yin, G. Y.

D. A. Braje, V. Balic, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. A 68, 041801 (R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y.

H. Kang and Y. Zhu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 093601 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zibrov, A. S.

M. Bajcsy, S. Hofferberth, V. Balic, T. Peyronel, M. Hafezi, A. S. Zibrov, V. Vuletic, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

B. J. Dalton, R. McDuff, and P. L. Knight, J. Mod. Opt. 32, 61 (1985).

Laser Phys. (1)

M. M. Hossain, S. Mitra, B. Ray, and P. N. Ghosh, Laser Phys. 19, 2008 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon. (1)

N. Matsuda, R. Shimizu, Y. Mitsumori, H. Kosaka, and K. Edamatsu, Nat. Photon. 3, 95 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (4)

M. Erhard and H. Helm, Phys. Rev. A 63, 043813 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Franson, B. C. Jacobs, and T. B. Pittman, Phys. Rev. A 70, 062302 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Bhagwat, A. D. Slepkov, V. Venkataraman, P. Londero, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. A 79, 063809 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Braje, V. Balic, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. A 68, 041801 (R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (7)

M. Bajcsy, S. Hofferberth, V. Balic, T. Peyronel, M. Hafezi, A. S. Zibrov, V. Vuletic, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Harris and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3611(1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Grangier, J. F. Roch, and G. Roger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1418 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kang and Y. Zhu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 093601 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Londero, V. Venkataraman, A. R. Bhagwat, A. D. Slepkov, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043602 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Field, K. H. Hahn, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3062 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Lukin, A. B. Matsko, M. Fleischhauer, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1847 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (2)

W. Happer, Rev. Mod. Phys. 44, 169 (1972).
[CrossRef]

P. Kok, W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 135 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

A. M. C. Dawes, L. Illing, S. M. Clark, and D. J. Gauthier, Science 308, 672 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

A. Andre, “Nonclassical states of light and atomic ensembles,” Ph.D. dissertation (Harvard University, 2005).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Energy-level diagram of the modulation scheme. FWM is generated in a double-lambda configuration on the D1 ( 5 2 P 1 / 2 ) transition of Rb-85. It is modulated by periodically turning the switching field E s w on to the D2 ( 5 2 P 3 / 2 ) transition.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup. The switching and signal fields are combined with the pump fields on a PBS. The beams are then focused into the core of the fiber. A counterpropagating desorption beam generates the desired vapor density and optical depth. The modulated signal field is filtered from the pump beams by a second PBS and from the idler and switching fields by an etalon and is then detected with a PMT.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Modulated signal. FWM modulation at 500 Hz with the signal tuned to the two-photon resonance. The 5 nW signal experiences a gain of 2 with 15 μW of total pump power. We observe 3 dB of attenuation with 1 μW of switching power. (b) Saturation of modulation depth. Signal modulation depth as a function of switching power. Modulation begins to saturate at 0.65 μW .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Modulation depth and number of switching photons versus FWM bandwidth. The circles show the modulation depth observed in the signal field as a function of the FWM gain bandwidth. The switching power used for all the measurements was 400 nW . The squares show the switching photon number required for 50% modulation of the signal. The switching photon number is observed to be fairly insensitive to bandwidth. Error bars represent measurement inaccuracy.

Metrics