Abstract

We present a novel (to our knowledge) approach for measurement of the three-dimensional point spread function (PSF) of optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems using a nanoparticle-embedded phantom (NEP), toward development of standardized test methods for biophotonic imaging. The NEP comprises highly reflective plasmonic nanoparticles, homogeneously distributed in a transparent silicone matrix. OCT image volumes were analyzed to characterize PSFs in axial and lateral directions at a variety of locations in the NEP. Results indicate submicrometer agreement with conventional approaches to measure dimensions of the PSF. The NEP offers a robust approach for validating and comparing imaging performance of OCT devices.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 051403(2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Agrawal, M. A. Gavrielides, S. Weininger, K. Chakrabarti, and T. J. Pfefer, Proc. SPIE 6870, 687005 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. G. van Leeuwen, D. J. Faber, and M. C. Aalders, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 227 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. D. Aguirre, P. Hsiung, T. H. Ko, I. Hartl, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 28, 2064 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. W. Hell, S. Lindek, C. Cremer, and E. H. K. Stelzer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1335 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. J. Nasse, J. C. Woehl, and S. Huant, Appl Phys. Lett. 90, 031106 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Dong, K. Koenig, and P. So, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 450(2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. P. D. Wooliams, R. A. Ferguson, C. Hart, A. Grimwood, and P. H. Tomlins, Appl. Opt. 49, 2014 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Agrawal, S. Huang, A. W. H. Lin, M. Lee, J. K. Barton, R. A. Drezek, and T. J. Pfefer, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041121 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. C. Kah, T. H. Chow, B. K. Ng, S. G. Razul, M. Olivo, and C. J. Sheppard, Appl. Opt. 48, D96 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. L. Westcott, J. B. Jackson, C. Radloff, and N. J. Halas, Phys. Rev. B 66, 155431 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2010

2009

2008

A. Agrawal, M. A. Gavrielides, S. Weininger, K. Chakrabarti, and T. J. Pfefer, Proc. SPIE 6870, 687005 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

M. J. Nasse, J. C. Woehl, and S. Huant, Appl Phys. Lett. 90, 031106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 051403(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

A. Agrawal, S. Huang, A. W. H. Lin, M. Lee, J. K. Barton, R. A. Drezek, and T. J. Pfefer, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041121 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

A. D. Aguirre, P. Hsiung, T. H. Ko, I. Hartl, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 28, 2064 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Dong, K. Koenig, and P. So, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 450(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. G. van Leeuwen, D. J. Faber, and M. C. Aalders, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 227 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

S. L. Westcott, J. B. Jackson, C. Radloff, and N. J. Halas, Phys. Rev. B 66, 155431 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1994

S. W. Hell, S. Lindek, C. Cremer, and E. H. K. Stelzer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1335 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Aalders, M. C.

T. G. van Leeuwen, D. J. Faber, and M. C. Aalders, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 227 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, A.

A. Agrawal, M. A. Gavrielides, S. Weininger, K. Chakrabarti, and T. J. Pfefer, Proc. SPIE 6870, 687005 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Agrawal, S. Huang, A. W. H. Lin, M. Lee, J. K. Barton, R. A. Drezek, and T. J. Pfefer, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041121 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aguirre, A. D.

Barton, J. K.

A. Agrawal, S. Huang, A. W. H. Lin, M. Lee, J. K. Barton, R. A. Drezek, and T. J. Pfefer, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041121 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 051403(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chakrabarti, K.

A. Agrawal, M. A. Gavrielides, S. Weininger, K. Chakrabarti, and T. J. Pfefer, Proc. SPIE 6870, 687005 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chow, T. H.

Cremer, C.

S. W. Hell, S. Lindek, C. Cremer, and E. H. K. Stelzer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1335 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dong, C.

C. Dong, K. Koenig, and P. So, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 450(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drezek, R. A.

A. Agrawal, S. Huang, A. W. H. Lin, M. Lee, J. K. Barton, R. A. Drezek, and T. J. Pfefer, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041121 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faber, D. J.

T. G. van Leeuwen, D. J. Faber, and M. C. Aalders, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 227 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, R. A.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gavrielides, M. A.

A. Agrawal, M. A. Gavrielides, S. Weininger, K. Chakrabarti, and T. J. Pfefer, Proc. SPIE 6870, 687005 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grimwood, A.

Halas, N. J.

S. L. Westcott, J. B. Jackson, C. Radloff, and N. J. Halas, Phys. Rev. B 66, 155431 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hart, C.

Hartl, I.

Hell, S. W.

S. W. Hell, S. Lindek, C. Cremer, and E. H. K. Stelzer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1335 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hsiung, P.

Huang, S.

A. Agrawal, S. Huang, A. W. H. Lin, M. Lee, J. K. Barton, R. A. Drezek, and T. J. Pfefer, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041121 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huant, S.

M. J. Nasse, J. C. Woehl, and S. Huant, Appl Phys. Lett. 90, 031106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, J. B.

S. L. Westcott, J. B. Jackson, C. Radloff, and N. J. Halas, Phys. Rev. B 66, 155431 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kah, J. C.

Ko, T. H.

Koenig, K.

C. Dong, K. Koenig, and P. So, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 450(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, M.

A. Agrawal, S. Huang, A. W. H. Lin, M. Lee, J. K. Barton, R. A. Drezek, and T. J. Pfefer, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041121 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, A. W. H.

A. Agrawal, S. Huang, A. W. H. Lin, M. Lee, J. K. Barton, R. A. Drezek, and T. J. Pfefer, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041121 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindek, S.

S. W. Hell, S. Lindek, C. Cremer, and E. H. K. Stelzer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1335 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Marks, D. L.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 051403(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nasse, M. J.

M. J. Nasse, J. C. Woehl, and S. Huant, Appl Phys. Lett. 90, 031106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ng, B. K.

Nguyen, F. T.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 051403(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oldenburg, A. L.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 051403(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olivo, M.

Pfefer, T. J.

A. Agrawal, M. A. Gavrielides, S. Weininger, K. Chakrabarti, and T. J. Pfefer, Proc. SPIE 6870, 687005 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Agrawal, S. Huang, A. W. H. Lin, M. Lee, J. K. Barton, R. A. Drezek, and T. J. Pfefer, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041121 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radloff, C.

S. L. Westcott, J. B. Jackson, C. Radloff, and N. J. Halas, Phys. Rev. B 66, 155431 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Razul, S. G.

Sheppard, C. J.

So, P.

C. Dong, K. Koenig, and P. So, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 450(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stelzer, E. H. K.

S. W. Hell, S. Lindek, C. Cremer, and E. H. K. Stelzer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1335 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tomlins, P. H.

van Leeuwen, T. G.

T. G. van Leeuwen, D. J. Faber, and M. C. Aalders, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 227 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Weininger, S.

A. Agrawal, M. A. Gavrielides, S. Weininger, K. Chakrabarti, and T. J. Pfefer, Proc. SPIE 6870, 687005 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Westcott, S. L.

S. L. Westcott, J. B. Jackson, C. Radloff, and N. J. Halas, Phys. Rev. B 66, 155431 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Woehl, J. C.

M. J. Nasse, J. C. Woehl, and S. Huant, Appl Phys. Lett. 90, 031106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wooliams, P. D.

Zysk, A. M.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 051403(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl Phys. Lett.

M. J. Nasse, J. C. Woehl, and S. Huant, Appl Phys. Lett. 90, 031106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. W. Hell, S. Lindek, C. Cremer, and E. H. K. Stelzer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1335 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

T. G. van Leeuwen, D. J. Faber, and M. C. Aalders, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 227 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 051403(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Agrawal, S. Huang, A. W. H. Lin, M. Lee, J. K. Barton, R. A. Drezek, and T. J. Pfefer, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041121 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Dong, K. Koenig, and P. So, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 450(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

S. L. Westcott, J. B. Jackson, C. Radloff, and N. J. Halas, Phys. Rev. B 66, 155431 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

A. Agrawal, M. A. Gavrielides, S. Weininger, K. Chakrabarti, and T. J. Pfefer, Proc. SPIE 6870, 687005 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

OCT image volume of NEP with intensity thresholding applied to show only points at least 20 dB above the noise floor.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

3D renderings of individual nanoshells at different physical depths as indicated in the images. The beam waist is located 600 μm beneath the surface of the NEP. Bounding box dimensions for each nanoshell are 30 ( x ) μm × 30 ( y ) μm × 15 ( z ) μm . Cutouts have been taken to show the intensity distribution of the PSF. Color bar indicates dB above the noise floor.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cross sections of the PSF from individual nanoshells versus conventional measurement methods. Lateral cross sections in the (a) x and (b) y directions at the beam waist and 250 μm below the beam waist; axial cross sections are shown in (c).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Lateral and axial PSF widths versus depth from NEP measurements. Lateral PSF widths from knife edge measurements and Gaussian beam theory are also shown for comparison.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Axial PSF as a function of spectral bandwidth determined with the NEP as compared to standard specular surface measurements and theoretical calculations.

Metrics