Abstract

We demonstrate the feasibility of estimating hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SaO2) from erythrocytes over a visible wavelength band using high-resolution spectroscopic optical coherence tomography (SOCT). We take SOCT spectra from individual cells on in vitro human blood phantoms and calculate SaO2 by fitting the spectra to an analytical model. We also use diffusive spectroscopy (DS) measurements, which is validated by direct measurement of oxygen partial pressure, as a comparison. The result shows a reliable linear association between the SaO2 derived from SOCT and the DS measurement, indicating this methodology has potential on in vivo applications to evaluate blood oxygenation.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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C.-W. Lu, C.-K. Lee, M.-T. Tsai, Y.-M. Wang, and C. C. Yang, Opt. Lett. 33, 416 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Sluimer, J.-M. Gasc, J. L. van Wanroij, N. Kisters, M. Groeneweg, M. D. Sollewijn Gelpke, J. P. Cleutjens, L. H. van den Akker, P. Corvol, B. G. Wouters, M. J. Daemen, and A.-P. J. Bijnens, J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 51, 1258(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. G. Mik, T. Johannes, C. J. Zuurbier, A. Heinen, J. H. Houben-Weerts, G. M. Balestra, J. Stap, J. F. Beek, and C. Ince, Biophys. J. 95, 3977 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

R. Gillies and R. Gatenby, Cancer Metast. Rev. 26, 311 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. J. R. Sheppard, Opt. Lett. 32, 142 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, M. Wojtkowski, H. Ishikawa, K. A. Townsend, M. L. Gabriele, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, J Biomed. Opt. 12, 041212 (2007).
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R. K. Wang, S. L. Jacques, Z. Ma, S. Hurst, S. R. Hanson, and A. Gruber, Opt. Express 15, 4083 (2007).
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I. Serganova, J. Humm, C. Ling, and R. Blasberg, Clin. Cancer Res. 12, 5260 (2006).
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2003

2000

1997

1966

G. R. Kelman, J. Appl. Physiol. 21, 1375 (1966).
[PubMed]

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Balestra, G. M.

E. G. Mik, T. Johannes, C. J. Zuurbier, A. Heinen, J. H. Houben-Weerts, G. M. Balestra, J. Stap, J. F. Beek, and C. Ince, Biophys. J. 95, 3977 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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E. G. Mik, T. Johannes, C. J. Zuurbier, A. Heinen, J. H. Houben-Weerts, G. M. Balestra, J. Stap, J. F. Beek, and C. Ince, Biophys. J. 95, 3977 (2008).
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J. C. Sluimer, J.-M. Gasc, J. L. van Wanroij, N. Kisters, M. Groeneweg, M. D. Sollewijn Gelpke, J. P. Cleutjens, L. H. van den Akker, P. Corvol, B. G. Wouters, M. J. Daemen, and A.-P. J. Bijnens, J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 51, 1258(2008).
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I. Serganova, J. Humm, C. Ling, and R. Blasberg, Clin. Cancer Res. 12, 5260 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Cleutjens, J. P.

J. C. Sluimer, J.-M. Gasc, J. L. van Wanroij, N. Kisters, M. Groeneweg, M. D. Sollewijn Gelpke, J. P. Cleutjens, L. H. van den Akker, P. Corvol, B. G. Wouters, M. J. Daemen, and A.-P. J. Bijnens, J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 51, 1258(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corvol, P.

J. C. Sluimer, J.-M. Gasc, J. L. van Wanroij, N. Kisters, M. Groeneweg, M. D. Sollewijn Gelpke, J. P. Cleutjens, L. H. van den Akker, P. Corvol, B. G. Wouters, M. J. Daemen, and A.-P. J. Bijnens, J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 51, 1258(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daemen, M. J.

J. C. Sluimer, J.-M. Gasc, J. L. van Wanroij, N. Kisters, M. Groeneweg, M. D. Sollewijn Gelpke, J. P. Cleutjens, L. H. van den Akker, P. Corvol, B. G. Wouters, M. J. Daemen, and A.-P. J. Bijnens, J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 51, 1258(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dave, D.

Drexler, W.

Faber, D. J.

Fercher, A. F.

Fujimoto, J. G.

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, M. Wojtkowski, H. Ishikawa, K. A. Townsend, M. L. Gabriele, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, J Biomed. Opt. 12, 041212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Morgner, W. Drexler, F. X. Kärtner, X. D. Li, C. Pitris, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 25, 111 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gabriele, M. L.

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, M. Wojtkowski, H. Ishikawa, K. A. Townsend, M. L. Gabriele, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, J Biomed. Opt. 12, 041212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gasc, J.-M.

J. C. Sluimer, J.-M. Gasc, J. L. van Wanroij, N. Kisters, M. Groeneweg, M. D. Sollewijn Gelpke, J. P. Cleutjens, L. H. van den Akker, P. Corvol, B. G. Wouters, M. J. Daemen, and A.-P. J. Bijnens, J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 51, 1258(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gatenby, R.

R. Gillies and R. Gatenby, Cancer Metast. Rev. 26, 311 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gillies, R.

R. Gillies and R. Gatenby, Cancer Metast. Rev. 26, 311 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gong, J.

Groeneweg, M.

J. C. Sluimer, J.-M. Gasc, J. L. van Wanroij, N. Kisters, M. Groeneweg, M. D. Sollewijn Gelpke, J. P. Cleutjens, L. H. van den Akker, P. Corvol, B. G. Wouters, M. J. Daemen, and A.-P. J. Bijnens, J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 51, 1258(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gruber, A.

Hanson, S. R.

Heinen, A.

E. G. Mik, T. Johannes, C. J. Zuurbier, A. Heinen, J. H. Houben-Weerts, G. M. Balestra, J. Stap, J. F. Beek, and C. Ince, Biophys. J. 95, 3977 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Houben-Weerts, J. H.

E. G. Mik, T. Johannes, C. J. Zuurbier, A. Heinen, J. H. Houben-Weerts, G. M. Balestra, J. Stap, J. F. Beek, and C. Ince, Biophys. J. 95, 3977 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Humm, J.

I. Serganova, J. Humm, C. Ling, and R. Blasberg, Clin. Cancer Res. 12, 5260 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hurst, S.

Ince, C.

E. G. Mik, T. Johannes, C. J. Zuurbier, A. Heinen, J. H. Houben-Weerts, G. M. Balestra, J. Stap, J. F. Beek, and C. Ince, Biophys. J. 95, 3977 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ippen, E. P.

Ishikawa, H.

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, M. Wojtkowski, H. Ishikawa, K. A. Townsend, M. L. Gabriele, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, J Biomed. Opt. 12, 041212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

Johannes, T.

E. G. Mik, T. Johannes, C. J. Zuurbier, A. Heinen, J. H. Houben-Weerts, G. M. Balestra, J. Stap, J. F. Beek, and C. Ince, Biophys. J. 95, 3977 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kagemann, L.

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, M. Wojtkowski, H. Ishikawa, K. A. Townsend, M. L. Gabriele, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, J Biomed. Opt. 12, 041212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kärtner, F. X.

Kelman, G. R.

G. R. Kelman, J. Appl. Physiol. 21, 1375 (1966).
[PubMed]

Kisters, N.

J. C. Sluimer, J.-M. Gasc, J. L. van Wanroij, N. Kisters, M. Groeneweg, M. D. Sollewijn Gelpke, J. P. Cleutjens, L. H. van den Akker, P. Corvol, B. G. Wouters, M. J. Daemen, and A.-P. J. Bijnens, J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 51, 1258(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowalczyk, A.

Lee, C.-K.

Leitgeb, R.

Li, X.

Li, X. D.

Ling, C.

I. Serganova, J. Humm, C. Ling, and R. Blasberg, Clin. Cancer Res. 12, 5260 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, C.-W.

Ma, Z.

Mik, E. G.

Milner, T. E.

Morgner, U.

Nelson, J. S.

Pitris, C.

Schuman, J. S.

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, M. Wojtkowski, H. Ishikawa, K. A. Townsend, M. L. Gabriele, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, J Biomed. Opt. 12, 041212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Serganova, I.

I. Serganova, J. Humm, C. Ling, and R. Blasberg, Clin. Cancer Res. 12, 5260 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheppard, C. J. R.

Sluimer, J. C.

J. C. Sluimer, J.-M. Gasc, J. L. van Wanroij, N. Kisters, M. Groeneweg, M. D. Sollewijn Gelpke, J. P. Cleutjens, L. H. van den Akker, P. Corvol, B. G. Wouters, M. J. Daemen, and A.-P. J. Bijnens, J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 51, 1258(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sollewijn Gelpke, M. D.

J. C. Sluimer, J.-M. Gasc, J. L. van Wanroij, N. Kisters, M. Groeneweg, M. D. Sollewijn Gelpke, J. P. Cleutjens, L. H. van den Akker, P. Corvol, B. G. Wouters, M. J. Daemen, and A.-P. J. Bijnens, J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 51, 1258(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, V. J.

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, M. Wojtkowski, H. Ishikawa, K. A. Townsend, M. L. Gabriele, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, J Biomed. Opt. 12, 041212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stap, J.

E. G. Mik, T. Johannes, C. J. Zuurbier, A. Heinen, J. H. Houben-Weerts, G. M. Balestra, J. Stap, J. F. Beek, and C. Ince, Biophys. J. 95, 3977 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sticker, M.

Townsend, K. A.

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, M. Wojtkowski, H. Ishikawa, K. A. Townsend, M. L. Gabriele, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, J Biomed. Opt. 12, 041212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, M.-T.

van den Akker, L. H.

J. C. Sluimer, J.-M. Gasc, J. L. van Wanroij, N. Kisters, M. Groeneweg, M. D. Sollewijn Gelpke, J. P. Cleutjens, L. H. van den Akker, P. Corvol, B. G. Wouters, M. J. Daemen, and A.-P. J. Bijnens, J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 51, 1258(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Leeuwen, T. G.

van Wanroij, J. L.

J. C. Sluimer, J.-M. Gasc, J. L. van Wanroij, N. Kisters, M. Groeneweg, M. D. Sollewijn Gelpke, J. P. Cleutjens, L. H. van den Akker, P. Corvol, B. G. Wouters, M. J. Daemen, and A.-P. J. Bijnens, J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 51, 1258(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, R. K.

Wang, Y.-M.

Wojtkowski, M.

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, M. Wojtkowski, H. Ishikawa, K. A. Townsend, M. L. Gabriele, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, J Biomed. Opt. 12, 041212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, Opt. Lett. 25, 820 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wollstein, G.

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, M. Wojtkowski, H. Ishikawa, K. A. Townsend, M. L. Gabriele, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, J Biomed. Opt. 12, 041212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wouters, B. G.

J. C. Sluimer, J.-M. Gasc, J. L. van Wanroij, N. Kisters, M. Groeneweg, M. D. Sollewijn Gelpke, J. P. Cleutjens, L. H. van den Akker, P. Corvol, B. G. Wouters, M. J. Daemen, and A.-P. J. Bijnens, J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 51, 1258(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C. C.

Yi, J.

Zuurbier, C. J.

E. G. Mik, T. Johannes, C. J. Zuurbier, A. Heinen, J. H. Houben-Weerts, G. M. Balestra, J. Stap, J. F. Beek, and C. Ince, Biophys. J. 95, 3977 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biophys. J.

E. G. Mik, T. Johannes, C. J. Zuurbier, A. Heinen, J. H. Houben-Weerts, G. M. Balestra, J. Stap, J. F. Beek, and C. Ince, Biophys. J. 95, 3977 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer Metast. Rev.

R. Gillies and R. Gatenby, Cancer Metast. Rev. 26, 311 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Clin. Cancer Res.

I. Serganova, J. Humm, C. Ling, and R. Blasberg, Clin. Cancer Res. 12, 5260 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J Biomed. Opt.

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, M. Wojtkowski, H. Ishikawa, K. A. Townsend, M. L. Gabriele, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, J Biomed. Opt. 12, 041212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.

J. C. Sluimer, J.-M. Gasc, J. L. van Wanroij, N. Kisters, M. Groeneweg, M. D. Sollewijn Gelpke, J. P. Cleutjens, L. H. van den Akker, P. Corvol, B. G. Wouters, M. J. Daemen, and A.-P. J. Bijnens, J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 51, 1258(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Physiol.

G. R. Kelman, J. Appl. Physiol. 21, 1375 (1966).
[PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) OCT image of blood cells in gel phantom. Spectra were recovered from single blood cell as framed in figure for an example. (b)–(d) DS and recovered SOCT spectra from three phantoms; SOCT spectra are averaged in log scale. The Sa O 2 are estimated by DS as (b) 87%, (c) 35%, and (d) 5%; Error bar = ± SD .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Calibration of Sa O 2 estimated by DS. Independent measurements from four phantoms are plotted in different labels. (b) DS measured spectrum versus model fitted spectrum from a fully oxygenated phantom.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Hb Sa O 2 comparison. The x and y axes show the Sa O 2 estimated from DS and SOCT by least-square fitting the model, respectively. The SOCT spectra are extracted with 16 nm resolution. Dashed lines define 95% confident interval. The x error bar is the SD of several DS measurements. (b) The linear regression parameters: slope and R 2 over four different spectral resolutions.

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