Abstract

We propose and demonstrate an ultrasensitive photonic crystal fiber refractive index sensor by introducing the avoided-crossing effect in a bent-controlled fluid-filled photonic-bandgap fiber (FF-PBGF). By controlling the bend radius of the FF-PBGF, resonant couplings between the fundamental core mode and the cladding modes are realized and transmission notches are observed in the transmission band of the FF-PBGF. By changing the refractive index or temperature of the bent FF-PBGF, a sensitivity of 32,400 nm per refractive index unit (or 13.1nm/°C) is achieved, which is the highest for a fiber device to date, to our best knowledge.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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2010

2009

2008

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2005

N. M. Litchinitser and E. Poliakov, Appl. Phys. B 81, 347 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002

A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, L. Vincetti, and M. Zoboli, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 1530 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

1978

Alkeskjold, T. T.

Bang, O.

Bassi, P.

Borelli, E.

Cucinotta, A.

A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, L. Vincetti, and M. Zoboli, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 1530 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Deng, M.

Eggleton, B. J.

Fan, X. D.

Han, M.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Johnson, S. G.

Kawakami, S.

Koshiba, M.

Kuhlmey, B. T.

Laegsgaard, J.

Li, J.

Litchinitser, N. M.

N. M. Litchinitser and E. Poliakov, Appl. Phys. B 81, 347 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Magi, E. C.

Moore, E. D.

Murao, T.

Nagano, K.

Nishida, S.

Noordegraaf, D.

Poliakov, E.

N. M. Litchinitser and E. Poliakov, Appl. Phys. B 81, 347 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rao, Y. J.

Rindorf, L.

Saitoh, K.

Scolari, L.

Selleri, S.

A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, L. Vincetti, and M. Zoboli, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 1530 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Q.

Q. Shi and B. T. Kuhlmey, Opt. Commun. 282, 4723 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Steinvurzel, P.

Tang, C. P.

Tartarini, G.

Vincetti, L.

A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, L. Vincetti, and M. Zoboli, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 1530 (2002).
[CrossRef]

White, I. M.

Wu, D. K. C.

Wu, S. T.

Xu, L. C.

Zhu, T.

Zoboli, M.

A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, L. Vincetti, and M. Zoboli, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 1530 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Theory model for simulation and the transformed refractive index profile along the x axis with a bend radius of 5 mm at 1550 nm ; inset is the microscope image of the PCF used in our experiment.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Bandgap boundaries of the straight (central curves at each mode) and the bent FF-PBGF (left and right curves at each mode), and the dispersion curve (dashed curve) of the fundamental mode of the straight fiber.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dispersion curves of the fundamental mode (solid curves) of the FF-PBGF with a bend radius of 5 mm at 70 ° C and mode-field distributions at anticrossing points. The dotted curve is the confinement loss of the fundamental mode of the straight FF-PBGF at 70 ° C .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Resonant wavelengths happening at anticrossing points 1, 3, and 4 as shown in Fig. 2 as a function of temperature calculated.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmission spectra of the bent FF-PBGF under different temperatures.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured resonant wavelengths as a function of temperature.

Equations (1)

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S = d λ c d n fluid = 1 ξ λ c ( n g , core eff n g , cladding eff ) λ = λ c ( n core eff n cladding eff ) T .

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