Abstract

Changes in the optical fiber properties due to both intrinsic and extrinsic variations result in polarization mode dispersion and state of polarization (SOP) becoming stochastic in nature. The statistics for first-order PMD and the second-order PMD approach the Maxwellian and Foschini et al. [IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 293 (2000)] distributions, respectively. In this Letter, we investigate a theoretical statistical distribution that corres ponds to output SOP variations. The SOP variations can either be with wavelength (for buried fiber) or with time (for aerial fiber). Our results show that the statistics of the relative SOP changes approach the distribution proposed by Foschini et al..

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. B. Gibbon, L. Wu, D. W. Waswa, A. B. Conibear, and A. W. R. Leitch, S. Afr. J. Sci. 104, 119 (2008).
  2. C. D. Poole and J. Nagel, in Optical Fiber Telecommunications IVB, I.P.Kaminow and T.Li, eds. (Academic, 2002), Chap. 15.
  3. A. Galtarossa, L. Palmieri, and D. Sarchi, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1131 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. J. Foschini and C. D. Poole, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1439 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Z. Zhang, X. Bao, Q. Yu, and L. Chen, Opt. Fiber Technol. 13, 62 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. J. Foschini, L. E. Nelson, R. M. Jopson, and H. Kogelnik, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 293 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. S. Waddy, L. Chen, and X. Bao, Opt. Fiber Technol. 11, 1 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. S. Waddy, L. Chen, and X. Bao, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 468 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. J. Foschini, R. M. Jopson, L. E. Nelson, and H. Kogelnik, J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1560 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. V. Musara, S. Younsi, L. Wu, M. Zghal, and A. W. R. Leitch, in AFRICON, 2009 (IEEE, 2009), p. 1
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

T. B. Gibbon, L. Wu, D. W. Waswa, A. B. Conibear, and A. W. R. Leitch, S. Afr. J. Sci. 104, 119 (2008).

2007 (1)

Z. Zhang, X. Bao, Q. Yu, and L. Chen, Opt. Fiber Technol. 13, 62 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

D. S. Waddy, L. Chen, and X. Bao, Opt. Fiber Technol. 11, 1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

A. Galtarossa, L. Palmieri, and D. Sarchi, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1131 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

D. S. Waddy, L. Chen, and X. Bao, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 468 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

G. J. Foschini, L. E. Nelson, R. M. Jopson, and H. Kogelnik, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 293 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1991 (1)

G. J. Foschini and C. D. Poole, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1439 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bao, X.

Z. Zhang, X. Bao, Q. Yu, and L. Chen, Opt. Fiber Technol. 13, 62 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Waddy, L. Chen, and X. Bao, Opt. Fiber Technol. 11, 1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Waddy, L. Chen, and X. Bao, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 468 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

Z. Zhang, X. Bao, Q. Yu, and L. Chen, Opt. Fiber Technol. 13, 62 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Waddy, L. Chen, and X. Bao, Opt. Fiber Technol. 11, 1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Waddy, L. Chen, and X. Bao, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 468 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Conibear, A. B.

T. B. Gibbon, L. Wu, D. W. Waswa, A. B. Conibear, and A. W. R. Leitch, S. Afr. J. Sci. 104, 119 (2008).

Foschini, G. J.

G. J. Foschini, L. E. Nelson, R. M. Jopson, and H. Kogelnik, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 293 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Foschini, R. M. Jopson, L. E. Nelson, and H. Kogelnik, J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1560 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Foschini and C. D. Poole, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1439 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Galtarossa, A.

A. Galtarossa, L. Palmieri, and D. Sarchi, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1131 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gibbon, T. B.

T. B. Gibbon, L. Wu, D. W. Waswa, A. B. Conibear, and A. W. R. Leitch, S. Afr. J. Sci. 104, 119 (2008).

Jopson, R. M.

G. J. Foschini, L. E. Nelson, R. M. Jopson, and H. Kogelnik, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 293 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Foschini, R. M. Jopson, L. E. Nelson, and H. Kogelnik, J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1560 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

G. J. Foschini, L. E. Nelson, R. M. Jopson, and H. Kogelnik, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 293 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Foschini, R. M. Jopson, L. E. Nelson, and H. Kogelnik, J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1560 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Leitch, A. W. R.

T. B. Gibbon, L. Wu, D. W. Waswa, A. B. Conibear, and A. W. R. Leitch, S. Afr. J. Sci. 104, 119 (2008).

V. Musara, S. Younsi, L. Wu, M. Zghal, and A. W. R. Leitch, in AFRICON, 2009 (IEEE, 2009), p. 1
[CrossRef]

Musara, V.

V. Musara, S. Younsi, L. Wu, M. Zghal, and A. W. R. Leitch, in AFRICON, 2009 (IEEE, 2009), p. 1
[CrossRef]

Nagel, J.

C. D. Poole and J. Nagel, in Optical Fiber Telecommunications IVB, I.P.Kaminow and T.Li, eds. (Academic, 2002), Chap. 15.

Nelson, L. E.

G. J. Foschini, L. E. Nelson, R. M. Jopson, and H. Kogelnik, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 293 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Foschini, R. M. Jopson, L. E. Nelson, and H. Kogelnik, J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1560 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Palmieri, L.

A. Galtarossa, L. Palmieri, and D. Sarchi, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1131 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Poole, C. D.

G. J. Foschini and C. D. Poole, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1439 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Poole and J. Nagel, in Optical Fiber Telecommunications IVB, I.P.Kaminow and T.Li, eds. (Academic, 2002), Chap. 15.

Sarchi, D.

A. Galtarossa, L. Palmieri, and D. Sarchi, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1131 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Waddy, D. S.

D. S. Waddy, L. Chen, and X. Bao, Opt. Fiber Technol. 11, 1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Waddy, L. Chen, and X. Bao, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 468 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Waswa, D. W.

T. B. Gibbon, L. Wu, D. W. Waswa, A. B. Conibear, and A. W. R. Leitch, S. Afr. J. Sci. 104, 119 (2008).

Wu, L.

T. B. Gibbon, L. Wu, D. W. Waswa, A. B. Conibear, and A. W. R. Leitch, S. Afr. J. Sci. 104, 119 (2008).

V. Musara, S. Younsi, L. Wu, M. Zghal, and A. W. R. Leitch, in AFRICON, 2009 (IEEE, 2009), p. 1
[CrossRef]

Younsi, S.

V. Musara, S. Younsi, L. Wu, M. Zghal, and A. W. R. Leitch, in AFRICON, 2009 (IEEE, 2009), p. 1
[CrossRef]

Yu, Q.

Z. Zhang, X. Bao, Q. Yu, and L. Chen, Opt. Fiber Technol. 13, 62 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zghal, M.

V. Musara, S. Younsi, L. Wu, M. Zghal, and A. W. R. Leitch, in AFRICON, 2009 (IEEE, 2009), p. 1
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

Z. Zhang, X. Bao, Q. Yu, and L. Chen, Opt. Fiber Technol. 13, 62 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (3)

A. Galtarossa, L. Palmieri, and D. Sarchi, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1131 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Foschini, L. E. Nelson, R. M. Jopson, and H. Kogelnik, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 293 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Waddy, L. Chen, and X. Bao, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 468 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (2)

Z. Zhang, X. Bao, Q. Yu, and L. Chen, Opt. Fiber Technol. 13, 62 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Waddy, L. Chen, and X. Bao, Opt. Fiber Technol. 11, 1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Afr. J. Sci. (1)

T. B. Gibbon, L. Wu, D. W. Waswa, A. B. Conibear, and A. W. R. Leitch, S. Afr. J. Sci. 104, 119 (2008).

Other (2)

C. D. Poole and J. Nagel, in Optical Fiber Telecommunications IVB, I.P.Kaminow and T.Li, eds. (Academic, 2002), Chap. 15.

V. Musara, S. Younsi, L. Wu, M. Zghal, and A. W. R. Leitch, in AFRICON, 2009 (IEEE, 2009), p. 1
[CrossRef]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Probability density function of the change in SOP angles in degrees per unit wavelength for a buried fiber at a local exchange station in Port Elizabeth, South Africa, 28.2 km long, and with wavelength range from 1520 to 1570 nm in steps of 0.05 nm .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Rates of SOP changes in degrees per second taken for 30 min in June 2009 during the winter season in Port Elizabeth, South Africa: (a) aerial data taken from 8:30 to 9 a.m. and (b) aerial data taken from 12:20 to 12:50 p.m.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

τ = Δ τ p ,
ψ = arccos ( s 1 . s 2 ) .
τ ω = d τ d ω = Δ τ ω p + Δ τ p ω ,
| τ ω | Δ τ | p ω | .
s = R ( l , ω ) s in .
s ω = τ × s .
P | τ ω | = ( 32 x 9.24 x 2 ) tanh ( 4 x 1.71 x ) sech ( 4 x 1.71 x ) , for x 0 and P | τ ω | = 0 , for x < 0.

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