Abstract

A microscale acoustic resonator fabricated on a standard single-mode fiber tip was demonstrated as a hydrogen sensor. The fabrication of the resonator involved standard fiber cleaving and splicing, radio frequency sputtering, focused-ion-beam patterning and deposition, and wet etching. A submicrometer layer of platinum was coated on the vibration arms of the resonator serving as a catalytic heater upon hydrogen exposure. The heat locally raised the resonator temperature, which led to an acoustic resonance frequency shift. The sensor’s resonance frequency at 1.7MHz shifted 1170.4Hz upon exposure to 1% hydrogen concentration; the sensitivity of the sensor was estimated to be better than 0.1%.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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2008

A. R. Vaz, M. M. da Silva, J. Leon, S. A. Moshkalev, and J. W. Swart, J. Mater. Sci. 43, 3429 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

D. Iannuzzi, S. Deladi, M. Slaman, J. H. Rector, H. Schreuders, and M. C. Elwenspoek, Sens. Actuators B 121, 706 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

A. Trouillet, E. Marin, and C. Veillas, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

Y. Zhu and A. Wang, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 744 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Shen, J. Xu, and A. Wang, Opt. Lett. 30, 1935 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

N. V. Lavrik and P. G. Datskos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2697 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. P. Burg and S. R. Manalis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2698 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

X. Bevenot, A. Trouillet, C. Veillas, H. Gagnaire, and M. Clement, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 118 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

W. Shin, K. Imai, N. Izu, and N. Murayama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L1232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

X. Bevenot, A. Trouillet, C. Veillas, H. Gagnaire, and M. Clement, Sens. Actuators B 67, 57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995

G. Y. Chen, T. Thundat, E. A. Wachter, and R. J. Warmack, J. Appl. Phys. 77, 3618 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991

B. J. Costello, S. W. Wenzel, and R. M. White, Science 251, 1372 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bevenot, X.

X. Bevenot, A. Trouillet, C. Veillas, H. Gagnaire, and M. Clement, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 118 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Bevenot, A. Trouillet, C. Veillas, H. Gagnaire, and M. Clement, Sens. Actuators B 67, 57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Burg, T. P.

T. P. Burg and S. R. Manalis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2698 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G. Y.

G. Y. Chen, T. Thundat, E. A. Wachter, and R. J. Warmack, J. Appl. Phys. 77, 3618 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Clement, M.

X. Bevenot, A. Trouillet, C. Veillas, H. Gagnaire, and M. Clement, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 118 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Bevenot, A. Trouillet, C. Veillas, H. Gagnaire, and M. Clement, Sens. Actuators B 67, 57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Costello, B. J.

B. J. Costello, S. W. Wenzel, and R. M. White, Science 251, 1372 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

da Silva, M. M.

A. R. Vaz, M. M. da Silva, J. Leon, S. A. Moshkalev, and J. W. Swart, J. Mater. Sci. 43, 3429 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Datskos, P. G.

N. V. Lavrik and P. G. Datskos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2697 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Deladi, S.

D. Iannuzzi, S. Deladi, M. Slaman, J. H. Rector, H. Schreuders, and M. C. Elwenspoek, Sens. Actuators B 121, 706 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Elwenspoek, M. C.

D. Iannuzzi, S. Deladi, M. Slaman, J. H. Rector, H. Schreuders, and M. C. Elwenspoek, Sens. Actuators B 121, 706 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gagnaire, H.

X. Bevenot, A. Trouillet, C. Veillas, H. Gagnaire, and M. Clement, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 118 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Bevenot, A. Trouillet, C. Veillas, H. Gagnaire, and M. Clement, Sens. Actuators B 67, 57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Iannuzzi, D.

D. Iannuzzi, S. Deladi, M. Slaman, J. H. Rector, H. Schreuders, and M. C. Elwenspoek, Sens. Actuators B 121, 706 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Imai, K.

W. Shin, K. Imai, N. Izu, and N. Murayama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L1232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Izu, N.

W. Shin, K. Imai, N. Izu, and N. Murayama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L1232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lavrik, N. V.

N. V. Lavrik and P. G. Datskos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2697 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leon, J.

A. R. Vaz, M. M. da Silva, J. Leon, S. A. Moshkalev, and J. W. Swart, J. Mater. Sci. 43, 3429 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Manalis, S. R.

T. P. Burg and S. R. Manalis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2698 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Marin, E.

A. Trouillet, E. Marin, and C. Veillas, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moshkalev, S. A.

A. R. Vaz, M. M. da Silva, J. Leon, S. A. Moshkalev, and J. W. Swart, J. Mater. Sci. 43, 3429 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Murayama, N.

W. Shin, K. Imai, N. Izu, and N. Murayama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L1232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rector, J. H.

D. Iannuzzi, S. Deladi, M. Slaman, J. H. Rector, H. Schreuders, and M. C. Elwenspoek, Sens. Actuators B 121, 706 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schreuders, H.

D. Iannuzzi, S. Deladi, M. Slaman, J. H. Rector, H. Schreuders, and M. C. Elwenspoek, Sens. Actuators B 121, 706 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shen, F.

Shin, W.

W. Shin, K. Imai, N. Izu, and N. Murayama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L1232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Slaman, M.

D. Iannuzzi, S. Deladi, M. Slaman, J. H. Rector, H. Schreuders, and M. C. Elwenspoek, Sens. Actuators B 121, 706 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Swart, J. W.

A. R. Vaz, M. M. da Silva, J. Leon, S. A. Moshkalev, and J. W. Swart, J. Mater. Sci. 43, 3429 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thundat, T.

G. Y. Chen, T. Thundat, E. A. Wachter, and R. J. Warmack, J. Appl. Phys. 77, 3618 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Trouillet, A.

A. Trouillet, E. Marin, and C. Veillas, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Bevenot, A. Trouillet, C. Veillas, H. Gagnaire, and M. Clement, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 118 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Bevenot, A. Trouillet, C. Veillas, H. Gagnaire, and M. Clement, Sens. Actuators B 67, 57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vaz, A. R.

A. R. Vaz, M. M. da Silva, J. Leon, S. A. Moshkalev, and J. W. Swart, J. Mater. Sci. 43, 3429 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Veillas, C.

A. Trouillet, E. Marin, and C. Veillas, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Bevenot, A. Trouillet, C. Veillas, H. Gagnaire, and M. Clement, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 118 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Bevenot, A. Trouillet, C. Veillas, H. Gagnaire, and M. Clement, Sens. Actuators B 67, 57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wachter, E. A.

G. Y. Chen, T. Thundat, E. A. Wachter, and R. J. Warmack, J. Appl. Phys. 77, 3618 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wang, A.

Y. Zhu and A. Wang, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 744 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Shen, J. Xu, and A. Wang, Opt. Lett. 30, 1935 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Warmack, R. J.

G. Y. Chen, T. Thundat, E. A. Wachter, and R. J. Warmack, J. Appl. Phys. 77, 3618 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wenzel, S. W.

B. J. Costello, S. W. Wenzel, and R. M. White, Science 251, 1372 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, R. M.

B. J. Costello, S. W. Wenzel, and R. M. White, Science 251, 1372 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, J.

Zhu, Y.

Y. Zhu and A. Wang, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 744 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

N. V. Lavrik and P. G. Datskos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2697 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. P. Burg and S. R. Manalis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2698 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.

Y. Zhu and A. Wang, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 744 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

G. Y. Chen, T. Thundat, E. A. Wachter, and R. J. Warmack, J. Appl. Phys. 77, 3618 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci.

A. R. Vaz, M. M. da Silva, J. Leon, S. A. Moshkalev, and J. W. Swart, J. Mater. Sci. 43, 3429 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

W. Shin, K. Imai, N. Izu, and N. Murayama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L1232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

A. Trouillet, E. Marin, and C. Veillas, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Bevenot, A. Trouillet, C. Veillas, H. Gagnaire, and M. Clement, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 118 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Science

B. J. Costello, S. W. Wenzel, and R. M. White, Science 251, 1372 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators B

X. Bevenot, A. Trouillet, C. Veillas, H. Gagnaire, and M. Clement, Sens. Actuators B 67, 57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Iannuzzi, S. Deladi, M. Slaman, J. H. Rector, H. Schreuders, and M. C. Elwenspoek, Sens. Actuators B 121, 706 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other

Hydrogen material safety data sheet, http://www.airgas.com/documents/pdf/001026.pdf

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sensor fabrication process flow chart.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scanning ion microscope (SIM) photo of the patterned sensor tip. Inset, zoom-in view of scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the patterned area.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fiber tip resonator signal detection system setup.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured response to 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4% concentrations of H 2 and without H 2 . Inset, resonance frequency shifts as a function of H 2 concentrations.

Equations (1)

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Δ f 0 f 0 = π 2 n ζ α 8 ( L t ) 2 Δ T ,

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