Abstract

We measure time-dependent pure-rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) spectra for room-temperature N2, O2, CO2, C2H4, and C3H8, as well as in a C3H8 diffusion flame, using picosecond lasers. Because Raman coherences for N2 and O2 persist significantly longer than those for the other species, delayed probing can significantly reduce unwanted resonant contributions to rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy spectra, enabling temperature and relative O2/N2 concentration determination in fuel-rich gas mixtures. Delayed probing also eliminates interference from smeared vibrational CARS. Probe delay affects both the temperature and relative O2/N2 concentrations inferred from rotational spectra when using a standard frequency-domain analysis.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2010 (1)

S. Roy, J. R. Gord, and A. K. Patnaik, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 36, 280 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2006 (1)

J. Buldyreva, J. Bonamy, M. C. Weikl, F. Beyrau, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, F. Vestin, M. Afzelius, J. Bood, and P.-E. Bengtsson, J. RamanSpectrosc. 37, 647 (2006).

2005 (2)

S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, and J. R. Gord, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 264103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Schenk, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, Appl. Opt. 44, 5582 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

T. Seeger, F. Beyrau, A. Bräuer, and A. Leipertz, J. RamanSpectrosc. 34, 932 (2003).

2000 (1)

J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, Appl. Phys. B 70, 607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, Appl. Phys. B 62, 29 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1986 (2)

Afzelius, M.

J. Buldyreva, J. Bonamy, M. C. Weikl, F. Beyrau, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, F. Vestin, M. Afzelius, J. Bood, and P.-E. Bengtsson, J. RamanSpectrosc. 37, 647 (2006).

M. Afzelius, C. Brackmann, F. Vestin, and P.-E. Bengtsson, Appl. Opt. 43, 6664 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Aldén, M.

J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, Appl. Phys. B 70, 607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, Appl. Phys. B 62, 29 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, and H. Edner, Appl. Opt. 25, 4493 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, T. J.

Bengtsson, P.-E.

J. Buldyreva, J. Bonamy, M. C. Weikl, F. Beyrau, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, F. Vestin, M. Afzelius, J. Bood, and P.-E. Bengtsson, J. RamanSpectrosc. 37, 647 (2006).

M. Afzelius, C. Brackmann, F. Vestin, and P.-E. Bengtsson, Appl. Opt. 43, 6664 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, Appl. Phys. B 70, 607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, Appl. Phys. B 62, 29 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, and H. Edner, Appl. Opt. 25, 4493 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beyrau, F.

J. Buldyreva, J. Bonamy, M. C. Weikl, F. Beyrau, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, F. Vestin, M. Afzelius, J. Bood, and P.-E. Bengtsson, J. RamanSpectrosc. 37, 647 (2006).

T. Seeger, F. Beyrau, A. Bräuer, and A. Leipertz, J. RamanSpectrosc. 34, 932 (2003).

Bonamy, J.

J. Buldyreva, J. Bonamy, M. C. Weikl, F. Beyrau, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, F. Vestin, M. Afzelius, J. Bood, and P.-E. Bengtsson, J. RamanSpectrosc. 37, 647 (2006).

Bood, J.

J. Buldyreva, J. Bonamy, M. C. Weikl, F. Beyrau, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, F. Vestin, M. Afzelius, J. Bood, and P.-E. Bengtsson, J. RamanSpectrosc. 37, 647 (2006).

J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, Appl. Phys. B 70, 607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brackmann, C.

Bräuer, A.

T. Seeger, F. Beyrau, A. Bräuer, and A. Leipertz, J. RamanSpectrosc. 34, 932 (2003).

Buldyreva, J.

J. Buldyreva, J. Bonamy, M. C. Weikl, F. Beyrau, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, F. Vestin, M. Afzelius, J. Bood, and P.-E. Bengtsson, J. RamanSpectrosc. 37, 647 (2006).

Cong, Y.

Eckbreth, A. C.

Edner, H.

Gord, J. R.

S. Roy, J. R. Gord, and A. K. Patnaik, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 36, 280 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, and J. R. Gord, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 264103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kiefer, J.

Kliewer, C. J.

Leipertz, A.

T. Seeger, J. Kiefer, A. Leipertz, B. D. Patterson, C. J. Kliewer, and T. B. Settersten, Opt. Lett. 34, 3755 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Weikl, Y. Cong, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, Appl. Opt. 48, B43 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Buldyreva, J. Bonamy, M. C. Weikl, F. Beyrau, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, F. Vestin, M. Afzelius, J. Bood, and P.-E. Bengtsson, J. RamanSpectrosc. 37, 647 (2006).

M. Schenk, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, Appl. Opt. 44, 5582 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Seeger, F. Beyrau, A. Bräuer, and A. Leipertz, J. RamanSpectrosc. 34, 932 (2003).

Lucht, R. P.

Maris, M. A.

Martinsson, L.

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, Appl. Phys. B 62, 29 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, T. R.

S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, and J. R. Gord, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 264103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, R. E.

Patnaik, A. K.

S. Roy, J. R. Gord, and A. K. Patnaik, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 36, 280 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, B. D.

Raman, J.

J. Buldyreva, J. Bonamy, M. C. Weikl, F. Beyrau, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, F. Vestin, M. Afzelius, J. Bood, and P.-E. Bengtsson, J. RamanSpectrosc. 37, 647 (2006).

T. Seeger, F. Beyrau, A. Bräuer, and A. Leipertz, J. RamanSpectrosc. 34, 932 (2003).

Roy, S.

S. Roy, J. R. Gord, and A. K. Patnaik, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 36, 280 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, and J. R. Gord, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 264103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schenk, M.

Seeger, T.

M. C. Weikl, Y. Cong, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, Appl. Opt. 48, B43 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Seeger, J. Kiefer, A. Leipertz, B. D. Patterson, C. J. Kliewer, and T. B. Settersten, Opt. Lett. 34, 3755 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Buldyreva, J. Bonamy, M. C. Weikl, F. Beyrau, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, F. Vestin, M. Afzelius, J. Bood, and P.-E. Bengtsson, J. RamanSpectrosc. 37, 647 (2006).

M. Schenk, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, Appl. Opt. 44, 5582 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Seeger, F. Beyrau, A. Bräuer, and A. Leipertz, J. RamanSpectrosc. 34, 932 (2003).

Settersten, T. B.

Vestin, F.

J. Buldyreva, J. Bonamy, M. C. Weikl, F. Beyrau, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, F. Vestin, M. Afzelius, J. Bood, and P.-E. Bengtsson, J. RamanSpectrosc. 37, 647 (2006).

M. Afzelius, C. Brackmann, F. Vestin, and P.-E. Bengtsson, Appl. Opt. 43, 6664 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weikl, M. C.

M. C. Weikl, Y. Cong, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, Appl. Opt. 48, B43 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Buldyreva, J. Bonamy, M. C. Weikl, F. Beyrau, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, F. Vestin, M. Afzelius, J. Bood, and P.-E. Bengtsson, J. RamanSpectrosc. 37, 647 (2006).

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, Appl. Phys. B 62, 29 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, Appl. Phys. B 70, 607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, and J. R. Gord, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 264103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. (1)

S. Roy, J. R. Gord, and A. K. Patnaik, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 36, 280 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Spectrosc. (2)

T. Seeger, F. Beyrau, A. Bräuer, and A. Leipertz, J. RamanSpectrosc. 34, 932 (2003).

J. Buldyreva, J. Bonamy, M. C. Weikl, F. Beyrau, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, F. Vestin, M. Afzelius, J. Bood, and P.-E. Bengtsson, J. RamanSpectrosc. 37, 647 (2006).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectrally integrated RCARS as a function of delay between pump and probe pulses for pure gases at 294 K and 1 bar .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

RCARS spectra at 294 K and 1 bar of (a), (b) 20% CO 2 in N 2 ; (c), (d) 15% C 2 H 4 in N 2 ; and (e), (f) 25% C 3 H 8 in N 2 . Probe delay is indicated in each plot. SVCARS is evident in (c) and (e).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

RCARS spectra from a C 3 H 8 flame taken at probe delays of (a) 0 ps and (b) 150 ps .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Evaluated temperatures as a function of delay for N 2 , O 2 , and air at 294 K and 1 bar . Fitted experimental RCARS spectra from air for probe delays of (b) 0 ps and (c) 360 ps .

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