Abstract

We present a feedback-control method for suppression of excess phase noise in the optical-to-electronic conversion process involved in the extraction of microwave signals from femtosecond mode-locked lasers. A delay-locked loop based on drift-free phase detection with a differentially biased Sagnac loop is employed to eliminate low-frequency (e.g., <1kHz) excess phase noise and drift in the regenerated microwave signals. A 10GHz microwave signal is extracted from a 200MHz repetition rate mode-locked laser with a relative rms timing jitter of 2.4fs (integrated from 1mHz to 1MHz) and a relative rms timing drift of 0.84fs (integrated over 8h with 1Hz bandwidth) between the optical pulse train and the extracted microwave signal.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Bartels, S. A. Diddams, C. W. Oates, G. Wilpers, J. C. Bergquist, W. H. Oskay, and L. Hollberg, Opt. Lett. 30, 667(2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. E. N. Ivanov, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 736 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, K. Kim, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 139 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. Lorbeer, F. Ludwig, H. Schlarb, and A. Winter, in Proceedings of the Particle Accelerator Conference 2007 (2007), pp. 182–184.
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. J. McFerran, E. N. Ivanov, A. Bartels, G. Wilpers, C. W. Oates, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, Electron. Lett. 41, 650 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Millo, R. Boudot, M. Lours, P. Y. Bourgeois, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, Y. Kersale, and G. Santarelli, Opt. Lett. 34, 3707 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. W. Zhang, Z. Xu, R. Boudot, Y. Kersale, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, http://arxiv.org/abs/1003.2799.
  8. J. A. Taylor, S. A. Diddams, S. Datta, and A. Joshi, in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (2009), paper Th4.2.
  9. J. Kim, F. X. Kärtner, and F. Ludwig, Opt. Lett. 31, 3659 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Kim, J. A. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, Nat. Photon. 2, 733 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. Rubiola and V. Giordano, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2445 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2009

2008

J. Kim, J. A. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, Nat. Photon. 2, 733 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

E. N. Ivanov, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 736 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, K. Kim, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 139 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

A. Bartels, S. A. Diddams, C. W. Oates, G. Wilpers, J. C. Bergquist, W. H. Oskay, and L. Hollberg, Opt. Lett. 30, 667(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. McFerran, E. N. Ivanov, A. Bartels, G. Wilpers, C. W. Oates, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, Electron. Lett. 41, 650 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002

E. Rubiola and V. Giordano, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2445 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bartels, A.

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, K. Kim, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 139 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. J. McFerran, E. N. Ivanov, A. Bartels, G. Wilpers, C. W. Oates, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, Electron. Lett. 41, 650 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Bartels, S. A. Diddams, C. W. Oates, G. Wilpers, J. C. Bergquist, W. H. Oskay, and L. Hollberg, Opt. Lett. 30, 667(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergquist, J. C.

Bi, Z.

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, K. Kim, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 139 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Boudot, R.

J. Millo, R. Boudot, M. Lours, P. Y. Bourgeois, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, Y. Kersale, and G. Santarelli, Opt. Lett. 34, 3707 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, R. Boudot, Y. Kersale, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, http://arxiv.org/abs/1003.2799.

Bourgeois, P. Y.

Chen, J.

J. Kim, J. A. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, Nat. Photon. 2, 733 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cox, J. A.

J. Kim, J. A. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, Nat. Photon. 2, 733 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Datta, S.

J. A. Taylor, S. A. Diddams, S. Datta, and A. Joshi, in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (2009), paper Th4.2.

Diddams, S. A.

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, K. Kim, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 139 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Ivanov, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 736 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. McFerran, E. N. Ivanov, A. Bartels, G. Wilpers, C. W. Oates, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, Electron. Lett. 41, 650 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Bartels, S. A. Diddams, C. W. Oates, G. Wilpers, J. C. Bergquist, W. H. Oskay, and L. Hollberg, Opt. Lett. 30, 667(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Taylor, S. A. Diddams, S. Datta, and A. Joshi, in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (2009), paper Th4.2.

Giordano, V.

E. Rubiola and V. Giordano, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2445 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, K. Kim, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 139 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Ivanov, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 736 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. McFerran, E. N. Ivanov, A. Bartels, G. Wilpers, C. W. Oates, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, Electron. Lett. 41, 650 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Bartels, S. A. Diddams, C. W. Oates, G. Wilpers, J. C. Bergquist, W. H. Oskay, and L. Hollberg, Opt. Lett. 30, 667(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ivanov, E. N.

E. N. Ivanov, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 736 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. McFerran, E. N. Ivanov, A. Bartels, G. Wilpers, C. W. Oates, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, Electron. Lett. 41, 650 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Joshi, A.

J. A. Taylor, S. A. Diddams, S. Datta, and A. Joshi, in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (2009), paper Th4.2.

Kärtner, F. X.

J. Kim, J. A. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, Nat. Photon. 2, 733 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, F. X. Kärtner, and F. Ludwig, Opt. Lett. 31, 3659 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kersale, Y.

J. Millo, R. Boudot, M. Lours, P. Y. Bourgeois, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, Y. Kersale, and G. Santarelli, Opt. Lett. 34, 3707 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, R. Boudot, Y. Kersale, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, http://arxiv.org/abs/1003.2799.

Kim, J.

J. Kim, J. A. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, Nat. Photon. 2, 733 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, F. X. Kärtner, and F. Ludwig, Opt. Lett. 31, 3659 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, K.

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, K. Kim, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 139 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Le Coq, Y.

J. Millo, R. Boudot, M. Lours, P. Y. Bourgeois, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, Y. Kersale, and G. Santarelli, Opt. Lett. 34, 3707 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, R. Boudot, Y. Kersale, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, http://arxiv.org/abs/1003.2799.

Lorbeer, B.

B. Lorbeer, F. Ludwig, H. Schlarb, and A. Winter, in Proceedings of the Particle Accelerator Conference 2007 (2007), pp. 182–184.
[CrossRef]

Lours, M.

Ludwig, F.

J. Kim, F. X. Kärtner, and F. Ludwig, Opt. Lett. 31, 3659 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Lorbeer, F. Ludwig, H. Schlarb, and A. Winter, in Proceedings of the Particle Accelerator Conference 2007 (2007), pp. 182–184.
[CrossRef]

Luiten, A. N.

Ma, L.-S.

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, K. Kim, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 139 (2007).
[CrossRef]

McFerran, J. J.

J. J. McFerran, E. N. Ivanov, A. Bartels, G. Wilpers, C. W. Oates, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, Electron. Lett. 41, 650 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Millo, J.

Oates, C.

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, K. Kim, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 139 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oates, C. W.

J. J. McFerran, E. N. Ivanov, A. Bartels, G. Wilpers, C. W. Oates, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, Electron. Lett. 41, 650 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Bartels, S. A. Diddams, C. W. Oates, G. Wilpers, J. C. Bergquist, W. H. Oskay, and L. Hollberg, Opt. Lett. 30, 667(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oskay, W. H.

Robertsson, L.

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, K. Kim, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 139 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rubiola, E.

E. Rubiola and V. Giordano, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2445 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Santarelli, G.

J. Millo, R. Boudot, M. Lours, P. Y. Bourgeois, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, Y. Kersale, and G. Santarelli, Opt. Lett. 34, 3707 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, R. Boudot, Y. Kersale, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, http://arxiv.org/abs/1003.2799.

Schlarb, H.

B. Lorbeer, F. Ludwig, H. Schlarb, and A. Winter, in Proceedings of the Particle Accelerator Conference 2007 (2007), pp. 182–184.
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J. A.

J. A. Taylor, S. A. Diddams, S. Datta, and A. Joshi, in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (2009), paper Th4.2.

Wilpers, G.

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, K. Kim, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 139 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. J. McFerran, E. N. Ivanov, A. Bartels, G. Wilpers, C. W. Oates, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, Electron. Lett. 41, 650 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Bartels, S. A. Diddams, C. W. Oates, G. Wilpers, J. C. Bergquist, W. H. Oskay, and L. Hollberg, Opt. Lett. 30, 667(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Windeler, R. S.

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, K. Kim, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 139 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Winter, A.

B. Lorbeer, F. Ludwig, H. Schlarb, and A. Winter, in Proceedings of the Particle Accelerator Conference 2007 (2007), pp. 182–184.
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, R. Boudot, Y. Kersale, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, http://arxiv.org/abs/1003.2799.

Zhang, W.

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, R. Boudot, Y. Kersale, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, http://arxiv.org/abs/1003.2799.

Zucco, M.

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, K. Kim, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 139 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

J. J. McFerran, E. N. Ivanov, A. Bartels, G. Wilpers, C. W. Oates, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, Electron. Lett. 41, 650 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, K. Kim, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 139 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control

E. N. Ivanov, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 736 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photon.

J. Kim, J. A. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, Nat. Photon. 2, 733 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

E. Rubiola and V. Giordano, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2445 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, R. Boudot, Y. Kersale, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, http://arxiv.org/abs/1003.2799.

J. A. Taylor, S. A. Diddams, S. Datta, and A. Joshi, in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (2009), paper Th4.2.

B. Lorbeer, F. Ludwig, H. Schlarb, and A. Winter, in Proceedings of the Particle Accelerator Conference 2007 (2007), pp. 182–184.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of a DLL-based microwave signal extraction system. For the experimental demonstration, a 200 MHz ML Er fiber laser and a 10 GHz microwave signal are used. BOM-PD, balanced optical-microwave phase detector [8]; BPF, bandpass filter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) For the short-term phase noise measurement, the 10 GHz outputs from the two DLLs are mixed in quadrature by an out-of-loop microwave mixer. (b) For the long-term drift measurement, one BOM-PD is used in the DLL and the other BOM-PD is used as an out-of-loop timing detector that directly compares the timing error between the optical pulse train and the microwave signal.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Single-sideband (SSB) phase-noise spectra at 10 GHz and integrated timing jitter. Locked DLL, “When DLL is ON”; unlocked DLL, “When DLL is OFF”; mixer measurement noise floor as labeled. From 1 Hz to 1 MHz , the phase noise is measured by an out-of-loop mixer [method in Fig. 2a]. From 1 mHz to 1 Hz , the phase noise is computed from the averaged power spectral density of the timing drift data [method in Fig. 2b]. The integrated timing jitter from 1 mHz to 1 MHz is 2.4 and 10.1 fs for the locked and unlocked DLL, respectively. (b) Long-term out-of-loop timing drift measurement between the optical pulse train and the extracted microwave signal shows that the integrated rms timing drift (with 1 Hz bandwidth) is 0.84 fs over 8 h when the DLL is locked (right side). The unlocked data (left side) show a typical performance of 8.6 fs rms drift in 1 h . The inset shows the Allan deviation for the locked DLL, which reaches 1.9 × 10 19 at 4096 s .

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