Abstract

A quantum network that consists of several components should ideally work on a single physical platform. Neutral alkali atoms have the potential to be very well suited for this purpose due to their electronic structure, which involves long-lived nuclear spins and very sensitive highly excited Rydberg states. In this Letter, we describe a fabrication method based on quartz glass to structure arbitrary shapes of microscopic vapor cells. We show that the usual spectroscopic properties known from macroscopic vapor cells are almost unaffected by the strong confinement.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. L. O’Brien, A. Furusawa, and J. Vuckovic, Nat. Photon. 3, 687 (2009).
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    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Saffman and T. G. Walker, Phys. Rev. A 66, 065403(2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Kübler, J. P. Shaffer, T. Baluktsian, R. Löw, and T. Pfau, Nat. Photon. 4, 112 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Löw and T. Pfau, Nat. Photon. 3, 197 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Knappe, P. Schwindt, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. Liew, and J. Moreland, Opt. Express 13, 1249 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. Yang, D. B. Conkey, B. Wu, D. Yin, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Nat. Photon. 1, 331 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Ghosh, A. R. Bhagwat, C. K. Renshaw, S. Goh, A. L. Gaeta, and B. J. Kirby, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023603 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

H. Kübler, J. P. Shaffer, T. Baluktsian, R. Löw, and T. Pfau, Nat. Photon. 4, 112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

R. Löw and T. Pfau, Nat. Photon. 3, 197 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. L. O’Brien, A. Furusawa, and J. Vuckovic, Nat. Photon. 3, 687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Lvovsky, B. C. Sanders, and W. Tittel, Nat. Photon. 3, 706 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

W. Yang, D. B. Conkey, B. Wu, D. Yin, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Nat. Photon. 1, 331 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Light, F. Benabid, F. Couny, M. Maric, and A. N. Luiten, Opt. Lett. 32, 1323 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

S. Ghosh, A. R. Bhagwat, C. K. Renshaw, S. Goh, A. L. Gaeta, and B. J. Kirby, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023603 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

2002 (1)

M. Saffman and T. G. Walker, Phys. Rev. A 66, 065403(2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

D. Sarkisyan, D. Bloch, A. Papoyan, and M. Ducloy, Opt. Commun. 200, 201 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

C. B. Alcock, V. P. Itkin, and M. K. Horrigan, Can. Metall. Q. 23, 309 (1984).

Alcock, C. B.

C. B. Alcock, V. P. Itkin, and M. K. Horrigan, Can. Metall. Q. 23, 309 (1984).

Baluktsian, T.

H. Kübler, J. P. Shaffer, T. Baluktsian, R. Löw, and T. Pfau, Nat. Photon. 4, 112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Benabid, F.

Bhagwat, A. R.

A. D. Slepkov, A. R. Bhagwat, V. Venkataraman, P. Londero, and A. L. Gaeta, Opt. Express 16, 18976 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Ghosh, A. R. Bhagwat, C. K. Renshaw, S. Goh, A. L. Gaeta, and B. J. Kirby, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023603 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bloch, D.

D. Sarkisyan, D. Bloch, A. Papoyan, and M. Ducloy, Opt. Commun. 200, 201 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Conkey, D. B.

W. Yang, D. B. Conkey, B. Wu, D. Yin, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Nat. Photon. 1, 331 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Couny, F.

Ducloy, M.

D. Sarkisyan, D. Bloch, A. Papoyan, and M. Ducloy, Opt. Commun. 200, 201 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fleischhauer, M.

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Furusawa, A.

J. L. O’Brien, A. Furusawa, and J. Vuckovic, Nat. Photon. 3, 687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, A. L.

A. D. Slepkov, A. R. Bhagwat, V. Venkataraman, P. Londero, and A. L. Gaeta, Opt. Express 16, 18976 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Ghosh, A. R. Bhagwat, C. K. Renshaw, S. Goh, A. L. Gaeta, and B. J. Kirby, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023603 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghosh, S.

S. Ghosh, A. R. Bhagwat, C. K. Renshaw, S. Goh, A. L. Gaeta, and B. J. Kirby, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023603 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goh, S.

S. Ghosh, A. R. Bhagwat, C. K. Renshaw, S. Goh, A. L. Gaeta, and B. J. Kirby, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023603 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hawkins, A. R.

W. Yang, D. B. Conkey, B. Wu, D. Yin, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Nat. Photon. 1, 331 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

Horrigan, M. K.

C. B. Alcock, V. P. Itkin, and M. K. Horrigan, Can. Metall. Q. 23, 309 (1984).

Imamoglu, A.

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Itkin, V. P.

C. B. Alcock, V. P. Itkin, and M. K. Horrigan, Can. Metall. Q. 23, 309 (1984).

Kirby, B. J.

S. Ghosh, A. R. Bhagwat, C. K. Renshaw, S. Goh, A. L. Gaeta, and B. J. Kirby, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023603 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kitching, J.

Knappe, S.

Kübler, H.

H. Kübler, J. P. Shaffer, T. Baluktsian, R. Löw, and T. Pfau, Nat. Photon. 4, 112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liew, L.

Light, P. S.

Londero, P.

Löw, R.

H. Kübler, J. P. Shaffer, T. Baluktsian, R. Löw, and T. Pfau, Nat. Photon. 4, 112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Löw and T. Pfau, Nat. Photon. 3, 197 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Luiten, A. N.

Lvovsky, A. I.

A. I. Lvovsky, B. C. Sanders, and W. Tittel, Nat. Photon. 3, 706 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Marangos, J. P.

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Maric, M.

Moreland, J.

O’Brien, J. L.

J. L. O’Brien, A. Furusawa, and J. Vuckovic, Nat. Photon. 3, 687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Papoyan, A.

D. Sarkisyan, D. Bloch, A. Papoyan, and M. Ducloy, Opt. Commun. 200, 201 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pfau, T.

H. Kübler, J. P. Shaffer, T. Baluktsian, R. Löw, and T. Pfau, Nat. Photon. 4, 112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Löw and T. Pfau, Nat. Photon. 3, 197 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Renshaw, C. K.

S. Ghosh, A. R. Bhagwat, C. K. Renshaw, S. Goh, A. L. Gaeta, and B. J. Kirby, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023603 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saffman, M.

M. Saffman and T. G. Walker, Phys. Rev. A 66, 065403(2002).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, B. C.

A. I. Lvovsky, B. C. Sanders, and W. Tittel, Nat. Photon. 3, 706 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sarkisyan, D.

D. Sarkisyan, D. Bloch, A. Papoyan, and M. Ducloy, Opt. Commun. 200, 201 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, H.

W. Yang, D. B. Conkey, B. Wu, D. Yin, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Nat. Photon. 1, 331 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schwindt, P.

Shaffer, J. P.

H. Kübler, J. P. Shaffer, T. Baluktsian, R. Löw, and T. Pfau, Nat. Photon. 4, 112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shah, V.

Slepkov, A. D.

Tittel, W.

A. I. Lvovsky, B. C. Sanders, and W. Tittel, Nat. Photon. 3, 706 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Venkataraman, V.

Vuckovic, J.

J. L. O’Brien, A. Furusawa, and J. Vuckovic, Nat. Photon. 3, 687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Walker, T. G.

M. Saffman and T. G. Walker, Phys. Rev. A 66, 065403(2002).
[CrossRef]

Wu, B.

W. Yang, D. B. Conkey, B. Wu, D. Yin, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Nat. Photon. 1, 331 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, W.

W. Yang, D. B. Conkey, B. Wu, D. Yin, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Nat. Photon. 1, 331 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yin, D.

W. Yang, D. B. Conkey, B. Wu, D. Yin, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Nat. Photon. 1, 331 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Can. Metall. Q. (1)

C. B. Alcock, V. P. Itkin, and M. K. Horrigan, Can. Metall. Q. 23, 309 (1984).

Nat. Photon. (5)

H. Kübler, J. P. Shaffer, T. Baluktsian, R. Löw, and T. Pfau, Nat. Photon. 4, 112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Löw and T. Pfau, Nat. Photon. 3, 197 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. L. O’Brien, A. Furusawa, and J. Vuckovic, Nat. Photon. 3, 687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Lvovsky, B. C. Sanders, and W. Tittel, Nat. Photon. 3, 706 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Yang, D. B. Conkey, B. Wu, D. Yin, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Nat. Photon. 1, 331 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

D. Sarkisyan, D. Bloch, A. Papoyan, and M. Ducloy, Opt. Commun. 200, 201 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

M. Saffman and T. G. Walker, Phys. Rev. A 66, 065403(2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. Ghosh, A. R. Bhagwat, C. K. Renshaw, S. Goh, A. L. Gaeta, and B. J. Kirby, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023603 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Etched channels and dots ranging from 20 to 200 μm . (b) Scanning electron microscope picture of an etched 20 μm trench. (c) Scheme of the structures in the cell shown in (d). (d) Photograph of the spectroscopy cell used for the measurements in this Letter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Results of the spatially resolved absorption and fluorescence measurements. The right inset shows a rubidium level scheme with the involved states. In the left inset, the position in the cell at which the experiments were performed is indicated. In the lower part, a scheme of the cross section of the channel is shown.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The optical density at the Rb 85 5 S 1 / 2 F = 3 5 P 3 / 2 F = 4 resonance obtained from the experiment is compared to the optical density assuming a Doppler broadened rubidium vapor (dashed curve). The upper inset shows some of the obtained absorption spectra where 0 detuning is set to the Rb 87 5 S 1 / 2 F = 2 5 P 3 / 2 F = 3 transition. The lower inset indicates the position in the cell at which the measurements were performed.

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