Abstract

We report laser Doppler ophthalmoscopic fundus imaging in the rat eye with near-IR heterodyne holography. Sequential sampling of the beat of the reflected radiation against a frequency-shifted optical local oscillator is made onto an array detector. Wide-field maps of fluctuation spectra in the 10Hz to 25kHz band exhibit angiographic contrasts in the retinal vascular tree without requirement of an exogenous marker.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. C. E. Riva, G. T. Feke, B. Eberli, and V. Benary, Appl. Opt. 18, 2301 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Y. Aizu, K. Ogino, T. Sugita, T. Yamamoto, N. Takai, and T. Asakura, Appl. Opt. 31, 3020 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. Fujii, Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 32 (302), 1994.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. Michelson, B. Schmauss, M. J. Langhans, J. Harazny, and M. J. Groh, J. Glaucoma 5, 99 (1996).
  5. R. D. Ferguson, D. X. Hammer, A. E. Elsner, R. H. Webb, S. A. Burns, and J. J. Weiter, Opt. Express 125198 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, S. Srinivas, X. Wang, A. Malakzali, M. J. C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 22, 1119 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, Opt. Lett. 22, 1439 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. An and R. K. Wang, Opt. Express 16, 11438 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, J Biomed. Opt. 12, 041215 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. Michaely, A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041213 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Atlan, M. Gross, T. Vitalis, A. Rancillac, B. C. Forget, and A. K. Dunn, Opt. Lett. 31, 2762 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. M. Schmitt, A. H. Gandjbakhche, and R. F. Bonner, Appl. Opt. 31, 6535 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, J Biomed. Opt. 12, 041215 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Michaely, A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041213 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

1997 (2)

1994 (1)

H. Fujii, Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 32 (302), 1994.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

1979 (1)

Aizu, Y.

An, L.

Asakura, T.

Atlan, M.

Bachmann, A. H.

R. Michaely, A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041213 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barton, J. K.

Benary, V.

Blatter, C.

R. Michaely, A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041213 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonner, R. F.

Bower, B. A.

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, J Biomed. Opt. 12, 041215 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burns, S. A.

Chen, Z.

Dunn, A. K.

Eberli, B.

Elsner, A. E.

Feke, G. T.

Ferguson, R. D.

Forget, B. C.

Fujii, H.

H. Fujii, Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 32 (302), 1994.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gandjbakhche, A. H.

Groh, M. J.

G. Michelson, B. Schmauss, M. J. Langhans, J. Harazny, and M. J. Groh, J. Glaucoma 5, 99 (1996).

Gross, M.

Hammer, D. X.

Harazny, J.

G. Michelson, B. Schmauss, M. J. Langhans, J. Harazny, and M. J. Groh, J. Glaucoma 5, 99 (1996).

Huang, D.

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, J Biomed. Opt. 12, 041215 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, J Biomed. Opt. 12, 041215 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, Opt. Lett. 22, 1439 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kulkarni, M. D.

Langhans, M. J.

G. Michelson, B. Schmauss, M. J. Langhans, J. Harazny, and M. J. Groh, J. Glaucoma 5, 99 (1996).

Lasser, T.

R. Michaely, A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041213 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitgeb, R. A.

R. Michaely, A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041213 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malakzali, A.

Michaely, R.

R. Michaely, A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041213 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michelson, G.

G. Michelson, B. Schmauss, M. J. Langhans, J. Harazny, and M. J. Groh, J. Glaucoma 5, 99 (1996).

Milner, T. E.

Nelson, J. S.

Ogino, K.

Rancillac, A.

Riva, C. E.

Schmauss, B.

G. Michelson, B. Schmauss, M. J. Langhans, J. Harazny, and M. J. Groh, J. Glaucoma 5, 99 (1996).

Schmitt, J. M.

Srinivas, S.

Sugita, T.

Takai, N.

Tan, O.

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, J Biomed. Opt. 12, 041215 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Gemert, M. J. C.

Villiger, M. L.

R. Michaely, A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041213 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vitalis, T.

Wang, R. K.

Wang, X.

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, J Biomed. Opt. 12, 041215 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, R. H.

Weiter, J. J.

Welch, A. J.

Yamamoto, T.

Yazdanfar, S.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical configuration. The eye fundus is illuminated in broad field through the dilated iris. The cornea curvature is compensated by a coverslip and ophthalmic aqueous gel.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Recorded interference pattern, Δ ω / ( 2 π ) = 10 Hz . (b) FFT of the recorded frame. The dominating noise (1) is gathered in the low spatial frequencies. (c) FFT of the difference of two consecutive frames. Heterodyne contributions (2,4), homodyne contributions (3), noise (5). (d) Image focus (6) by Fresnel transform. (e) Magnified view of the retina. (f) White-light endoscopic view of the retina.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Doppler fundus images at four frequency detunings Δ ω / ( 2 π ) . Optical power is displayed in logarithmic scale (white is for high signal). [ A A ] indicates the measurement region of the lines reported in Fig. 4a. Scale bar, 1 mm .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) S against position along [ A A ] of Fig. 3a, averaged over 15 pixels in the orthogonal direction. Traces correspond to logarithmically spaced detuning frequencies from 10 Hz to 25 kHz . (b) S against Δ ω at positions 1, 2, 3, and 4 from the center of the vessel to its periphery.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I n = | E | 2 + | E LO | 2 + E E LO * e i ( Δ ω t n + Δ k x x + Δ k y y ) + E * E LO e + i ( Δ ω t n + Δ k x x + Δ k y y ) ,
S = | FFT ( ( I n + 1 I n ) e i π λ Δ z ( x 2 + y 2 ) ) | 2 ,

Metrics