Abstract

This Letter presents a reconfigurable optical diffraction grating using multiphase droplets on a microfluidic chip. The uniform and evenly spaced circular droplets are generated by continuously dispersing two immiscible liquids into a T junction to produce plugs, which are then transformed into a circular shape at a sudden expansion of the microchannel. In experiments, the droplet grating shows a detection limit of ~6.3×105 when used as an optofluidic refractometer and produces different colors as a color filter. Such a grating has the advantages of high stability and wide tunability in droplet size, grating period, and refractive index, making it promising for biochemical and biomaterial applications.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. E. Hecht, Optics, 4th ed. (Pearson Addison Wesley, 2001).

2009 (1)

L. L. Shui, E. S. Kooij, D. Wijnperle, A. van den Berg, and J. C. T. Eijkel, Soft Matter 5, 2708 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

L. K. Chin, A. Q. Liu, J. B. Zhang, C. S. Lim, and Y. C. Soh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 164107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

B. T. Kelly, J. C. Baret, V. Taly, and A. D. Griffiths, Chem. Commun. 18, 1773 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

J. H. Xu, S. W. Li, J. Tan, Y. J. Wang, and G. S. Luo, Langmuir 22, 7943 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Cubaud, U. Ulmanella, and C. M. Ho, Fluid Dyn. Res. 38, 772 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. H. Yang, Nature 442, 381 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hashimoto, B. Mayers, P. Garstecki, and G. M. Whitesides, Small 2, 1292 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Garstecki, M. J. Fuerstman, H. A. Stone, and G. M. Whitesides, Lab Chip 6, 693 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

M. R. Bringer, C. J. Gerdts, H. Song, J. D. Tice, and R. F. Ismagilov, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 362, 1087(2004).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Ganan-Calvo, J. M. Fernandez, A. M. Oliver, and M. Marquez, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4989 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Garstecki, I. Gitlin, W. DiLuzio, G. M. Whitesides, E. Kumacheva, and H. A. Stone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2649(2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

H. Song and R. F. Ismagilov, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 14613 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

J. A. B. Faria, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 4, 350 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Baret, J. C.

B. T. Kelly, J. C. Baret, V. Taly, and A. D. Griffiths, Chem. Commun. 18, 1773 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bringer, M. R.

M. R. Bringer, C. J. Gerdts, H. Song, J. D. Tice, and R. F. Ismagilov, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 362, 1087(2004).
[CrossRef]

Chin, L. K.

L. K. Chin, A. Q. Liu, J. B. Zhang, C. S. Lim, and Y. C. Soh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 164107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cubaud, T.

T. Cubaud, U. Ulmanella, and C. M. Ho, Fluid Dyn. Res. 38, 772 (2006).
[CrossRef]

DiLuzio, W.

P. Garstecki, I. Gitlin, W. DiLuzio, G. M. Whitesides, E. Kumacheva, and H. A. Stone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2649(2004).
[CrossRef]

Eijkel, J. C. T.

L. L. Shui, E. S. Kooij, D. Wijnperle, A. van den Berg, and J. C. T. Eijkel, Soft Matter 5, 2708 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Faria, J. A. B.

J. A. B. Faria, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 4, 350 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez, J. M.

A. M. Ganan-Calvo, J. M. Fernandez, A. M. Oliver, and M. Marquez, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4989 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fuerstman, M. J.

P. Garstecki, M. J. Fuerstman, H. A. Stone, and G. M. Whitesides, Lab Chip 6, 693 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ganan-Calvo, A. M.

A. M. Ganan-Calvo, J. M. Fernandez, A. M. Oliver, and M. Marquez, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4989 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Garstecki, P.

P. Garstecki, M. J. Fuerstman, H. A. Stone, and G. M. Whitesides, Lab Chip 6, 693 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Hashimoto, B. Mayers, P. Garstecki, and G. M. Whitesides, Small 2, 1292 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Garstecki, I. Gitlin, W. DiLuzio, G. M. Whitesides, E. Kumacheva, and H. A. Stone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2649(2004).
[CrossRef]

Gerdts, C. J.

M. R. Bringer, C. J. Gerdts, H. Song, J. D. Tice, and R. F. Ismagilov, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 362, 1087(2004).
[CrossRef]

Gitlin, I.

P. Garstecki, I. Gitlin, W. DiLuzio, G. M. Whitesides, E. Kumacheva, and H. A. Stone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2649(2004).
[CrossRef]

Griffiths, A. D.

B. T. Kelly, J. C. Baret, V. Taly, and A. D. Griffiths, Chem. Commun. 18, 1773 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, M.

M. Hashimoto, B. Mayers, P. Garstecki, and G. M. Whitesides, Small 2, 1292 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hecht, E.

E. Hecht, Optics, 4th ed. (Pearson Addison Wesley, 2001).

Ho, C. M.

T. Cubaud, U. Ulmanella, and C. M. Ho, Fluid Dyn. Res. 38, 772 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ismagilov, R. F.

M. R. Bringer, C. J. Gerdts, H. Song, J. D. Tice, and R. F. Ismagilov, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 362, 1087(2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Song and R. F. Ismagilov, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 14613 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelly, B. T.

B. T. Kelly, J. C. Baret, V. Taly, and A. D. Griffiths, Chem. Commun. 18, 1773 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kooij, E. S.

L. L. Shui, E. S. Kooij, D. Wijnperle, A. van den Berg, and J. C. T. Eijkel, Soft Matter 5, 2708 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kumacheva, E.

P. Garstecki, I. Gitlin, W. DiLuzio, G. M. Whitesides, E. Kumacheva, and H. A. Stone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2649(2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, S. W.

J. H. Xu, S. W. Li, J. Tan, Y. J. Wang, and G. S. Luo, Langmuir 22, 7943 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, C. S.

L. K. Chin, A. Q. Liu, J. B. Zhang, C. S. Lim, and Y. C. Soh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 164107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A. Q.

L. K. Chin, A. Q. Liu, J. B. Zhang, C. S. Lim, and Y. C. Soh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 164107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Luo, G. S.

J. H. Xu, S. W. Li, J. Tan, Y. J. Wang, and G. S. Luo, Langmuir 22, 7943 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marquez, M.

A. M. Ganan-Calvo, J. M. Fernandez, A. M. Oliver, and M. Marquez, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4989 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mayers, B.

M. Hashimoto, B. Mayers, P. Garstecki, and G. M. Whitesides, Small 2, 1292 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oliver, A. M.

A. M. Ganan-Calvo, J. M. Fernandez, A. M. Oliver, and M. Marquez, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4989 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Psaltis, D.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. H. Yang, Nature 442, 381 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quake, S. R.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. H. Yang, Nature 442, 381 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shui, L. L.

L. L. Shui, E. S. Kooij, D. Wijnperle, A. van den Berg, and J. C. T. Eijkel, Soft Matter 5, 2708 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Soh, Y. C.

L. K. Chin, A. Q. Liu, J. B. Zhang, C. S. Lim, and Y. C. Soh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 164107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Song, H.

M. R. Bringer, C. J. Gerdts, H. Song, J. D. Tice, and R. F. Ismagilov, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 362, 1087(2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Song and R. F. Ismagilov, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 14613 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stone, H. A.

P. Garstecki, M. J. Fuerstman, H. A. Stone, and G. M. Whitesides, Lab Chip 6, 693 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Garstecki, I. Gitlin, W. DiLuzio, G. M. Whitesides, E. Kumacheva, and H. A. Stone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2649(2004).
[CrossRef]

Taly, V.

B. T. Kelly, J. C. Baret, V. Taly, and A. D. Griffiths, Chem. Commun. 18, 1773 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tan, J.

J. H. Xu, S. W. Li, J. Tan, Y. J. Wang, and G. S. Luo, Langmuir 22, 7943 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tice, J. D.

M. R. Bringer, C. J. Gerdts, H. Song, J. D. Tice, and R. F. Ismagilov, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 362, 1087(2004).
[CrossRef]

Ulmanella, U.

T. Cubaud, U. Ulmanella, and C. M. Ho, Fluid Dyn. Res. 38, 772 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van den Berg, A.

L. L. Shui, E. S. Kooij, D. Wijnperle, A. van den Berg, and J. C. T. Eijkel, Soft Matter 5, 2708 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. J.

J. H. Xu, S. W. Li, J. Tan, Y. J. Wang, and G. S. Luo, Langmuir 22, 7943 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whitesides, G. M.

M. Hashimoto, B. Mayers, P. Garstecki, and G. M. Whitesides, Small 2, 1292 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Garstecki, M. J. Fuerstman, H. A. Stone, and G. M. Whitesides, Lab Chip 6, 693 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Garstecki, I. Gitlin, W. DiLuzio, G. M. Whitesides, E. Kumacheva, and H. A. Stone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2649(2004).
[CrossRef]

Wijnperle, D.

L. L. Shui, E. S. Kooij, D. Wijnperle, A. van den Berg, and J. C. T. Eijkel, Soft Matter 5, 2708 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J. H.

J. H. Xu, S. W. Li, J. Tan, Y. J. Wang, and G. S. Luo, Langmuir 22, 7943 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C. H.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. H. Yang, Nature 442, 381 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J. B.

L. K. Chin, A. Q. Liu, J. B. Zhang, C. S. Lim, and Y. C. Soh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 164107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

A. M. Ganan-Calvo, J. M. Fernandez, A. M. Oliver, and M. Marquez, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4989 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Garstecki, I. Gitlin, W. DiLuzio, G. M. Whitesides, E. Kumacheva, and H. A. Stone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2649(2004).
[CrossRef]

L. K. Chin, A. Q. Liu, J. B. Zhang, C. S. Lim, and Y. C. Soh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 164107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Commun. (1)

B. T. Kelly, J. C. Baret, V. Taly, and A. D. Griffiths, Chem. Commun. 18, 1773 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fluid Dyn. Res. (1)

T. Cubaud, U. Ulmanella, and C. M. Ho, Fluid Dyn. Res. 38, 772 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

H. Song and R. F. Ismagilov, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 14613 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lab Chip (1)

P. Garstecki, M. J. Fuerstman, H. A. Stone, and G. M. Whitesides, Lab Chip 6, 693 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (1)

J. H. Xu, S. W. Li, J. Tan, Y. J. Wang, and G. S. Luo, Langmuir 22, 7943 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. A. B. Faria, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 4, 350 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. H. Yang, Nature 442, 381 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A (1)

M. R. Bringer, C. J. Gerdts, H. Song, J. D. Tice, and R. F. Ismagilov, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 362, 1087(2004).
[CrossRef]

Small (1)

M. Hashimoto, B. Mayers, P. Garstecki, and G. M. Whitesides, Small 2, 1292 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soft Matter (1)

L. L. Shui, E. S. Kooij, D. Wijnperle, A. van den Berg, and J. C. T. Eijkel, Soft Matter 5, 2708 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

E. Hecht, Optics, 4th ed. (Pearson Addison Wesley, 2001).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the microfluidic droplet grating system: (a) microfluidic chip for droplet generation, (b) cross-sectional view of the grating and diffraction orders of the transmission, (c) wavefront phase shift profiles for different types of droplets.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Micrographs of the generation of droplets and the formation of droplet train: (a) growth of a plug, (b) breaking of the plug, (c) retraction of the tip of Ca Cl 2 solution, (d) self assembly of the plugs into a droplet array at a sudden expansion of the microfluidic channel.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured diffraction patterns of the He–Ne laser by the droplet grating: variations of the diffraction patterns in response to (a) the change of grating period and (b) the change of droplet refractive index; (c) measured results as compared with the predicted data. The dotted white lines in (a) indicate the direction of the long axis of the microchannel.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured color patterns of white incident light when the droplet grating is used as a zeroth-order color filter. The vertical direction is enlarged 3 × for better visual effect.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ξ = 2 π h ( n oil n droplet ) / λ ,
T 0 peak = cos 2 ( ξ / 2 ) , T 1 peak = sin 2 ( ξ / 2 ) / π 2 .

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