Abstract

We demonstrate a stable and linear photonic radio frequency (RF) phase shifter based on a differential-group-delay element and the polarization sensitive effect of an optical phase modulator. The phase shift can be tuned continuously over 360° for RF signals over 40GHz with an electrical control voltage from 7.5 to +7.5V.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. S. Birkmayer and M. J. Wale, Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. J Optoelectron. 139, 301 (1992).
  2. J. Han, H. Erlig, D. Chang, M. C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, W. Steier, and H. Fetterman, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 531 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. S. Lee, A. H. Udupa, H. Erlig, H. Zhang, Y. Chang, C. Zhang, D. H. Chang, D. Bhattacharya, B. Tsap, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, and H. R. Fetterman, IEEE Microwave Guided Wave Lett. 9, 357 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. T. Winnall, A. C. Lindsay, and G. A. Knight, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1003 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Ghorbani, A. Mitchell, R. B. Waterhouse, and M. W. Austin, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 645(1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. F. Coward, T. K. Yee, C. H. Chalfant, and P. H. Chang, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 2201 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Loayssa and F. J. Lahoz, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 208 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. Xue, S. Sales, J. Capmany, and J. Mork, Opt. Lett. 34, 929 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Y. Dong, H. He, W. Hu, Z. Li, Q. Wang, W. Kuang, T. H. Cheng, Y. J. Wen, Y. Wang, and C. Lu, Opt. Lett. 32, 745 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Q. Chang, Q. Li, Z. Zhang, M. Qiu, T. Ye, and Y. Su, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21, 60 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Chen, Y. Dong, H. He, W. Hu, and L. Li, Opt. Lett. 34, 2375 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. H. Park, J. Yi, Y. Byun, S. Lee, S. Kim, M. Takenaka, and Y. Nakano, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 4378 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Yu, Q. Yu, Z. Pan, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 341 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. D. Poole, N. S. Bergano, R. E. Wagner, and H. J. Schulte, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1185 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. Derickson, Fiber Optic Test and Measurement(Prentice-Hall, 1997).

2009 (3)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

A. Loayssa and F. J. Lahoz, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

C. Yu, Q. Yu, Z. Pan, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 341 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

H. Park, J. Yi, Y. Byun, S. Lee, S. Kim, M. Takenaka, and Y. Nakano, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 4378 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. Han, H. Erlig, D. Chang, M. C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, W. Steier, and H. Fetterman, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 531 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

S. S. Lee, A. H. Udupa, H. Erlig, H. Zhang, Y. Chang, C. Zhang, D. H. Chang, D. Bhattacharya, B. Tsap, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, and H. R. Fetterman, IEEE Microwave Guided Wave Lett. 9, 357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Ghorbani, A. Mitchell, R. B. Waterhouse, and M. W. Austin, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 645(1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

S. T. Winnall, A. C. Lindsay, and G. A. Knight, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1003 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

J. F. Coward, T. K. Yee, C. H. Chalfant, and P. H. Chang, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 2201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

W. S. Birkmayer and M. J. Wale, Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. J Optoelectron. 139, 301 (1992).

1988 (1)

C. D. Poole, N. S. Bergano, R. E. Wagner, and H. J. Schulte, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1185 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Austin, M. W.

K. Ghorbani, A. Mitchell, R. B. Waterhouse, and M. W. Austin, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 645(1999).
[CrossRef]

Bergano, N. S.

C. D. Poole, N. S. Bergano, R. E. Wagner, and H. J. Schulte, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1185 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharya, D.

S. S. Lee, A. H. Udupa, H. Erlig, H. Zhang, Y. Chang, C. Zhang, D. H. Chang, D. Bhattacharya, B. Tsap, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, and H. R. Fetterman, IEEE Microwave Guided Wave Lett. 9, 357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Birkmayer, W. S.

W. S. Birkmayer and M. J. Wale, Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. J Optoelectron. 139, 301 (1992).

Byun, Y.

H. Park, J. Yi, Y. Byun, S. Lee, S. Kim, M. Takenaka, and Y. Nakano, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 4378 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Capmany, J.

Chalfant, C. H.

J. F. Coward, T. K. Yee, C. H. Chalfant, and P. H. Chang, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 2201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chang, D.

J. Han, H. Erlig, D. Chang, M. C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, W. Steier, and H. Fetterman, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 531 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chang, D. H.

S. S. Lee, A. H. Udupa, H. Erlig, H. Zhang, Y. Chang, C. Zhang, D. H. Chang, D. Bhattacharya, B. Tsap, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, and H. R. Fetterman, IEEE Microwave Guided Wave Lett. 9, 357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chang, P. H.

J. F. Coward, T. K. Yee, C. H. Chalfant, and P. H. Chang, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 2201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Q.

Q. Chang, Q. Li, Z. Zhang, M. Qiu, T. Ye, and Y. Su, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21, 60 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y.

S. S. Lee, A. H. Udupa, H. Erlig, H. Zhang, Y. Chang, C. Zhang, D. H. Chang, D. Bhattacharya, B. Tsap, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, and H. R. Fetterman, IEEE Microwave Guided Wave Lett. 9, 357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

Cheng, T. H.

Coward, J. F.

J. F. Coward, T. K. Yee, C. H. Chalfant, and P. H. Chang, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 2201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L. R.

S. S. Lee, A. H. Udupa, H. Erlig, H. Zhang, Y. Chang, C. Zhang, D. H. Chang, D. Bhattacharya, B. Tsap, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, and H. R. Fetterman, IEEE Microwave Guided Wave Lett. 9, 357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Derickson, D.

D. Derickson, Fiber Optic Test and Measurement(Prentice-Hall, 1997).

Dong, Y.

Erlig, H.

J. Han, H. Erlig, D. Chang, M. C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, W. Steier, and H. Fetterman, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 531 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Lee, A. H. Udupa, H. Erlig, H. Zhang, Y. Chang, C. Zhang, D. H. Chang, D. Bhattacharya, B. Tsap, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, and H. R. Fetterman, IEEE Microwave Guided Wave Lett. 9, 357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fetterman, H.

J. Han, H. Erlig, D. Chang, M. C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, W. Steier, and H. Fetterman, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 531 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fetterman, H. R.

S. S. Lee, A. H. Udupa, H. Erlig, H. Zhang, Y. Chang, C. Zhang, D. H. Chang, D. Bhattacharya, B. Tsap, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, and H. R. Fetterman, IEEE Microwave Guided Wave Lett. 9, 357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ghorbani, K.

K. Ghorbani, A. Mitchell, R. B. Waterhouse, and M. W. Austin, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 645(1999).
[CrossRef]

Han, J.

J. Han, H. Erlig, D. Chang, M. C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, W. Steier, and H. Fetterman, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 531 (2002).
[CrossRef]

He, H.

Hu, W.

Kim, S.

H. Park, J. Yi, Y. Byun, S. Lee, S. Kim, M. Takenaka, and Y. Nakano, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 4378 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Knight, G. A.

S. T. Winnall, A. C. Lindsay, and G. A. Knight, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1003 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kuang, W.

Lahoz, F. J.

A. Loayssa and F. J. Lahoz, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

H. Park, J. Yi, Y. Byun, S. Lee, S. Kim, M. Takenaka, and Y. Nakano, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 4378 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. S.

S. S. Lee, A. H. Udupa, H. Erlig, H. Zhang, Y. Chang, C. Zhang, D. H. Chang, D. Bhattacharya, B. Tsap, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, and H. R. Fetterman, IEEE Microwave Guided Wave Lett. 9, 357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

Li, Q.

Q. Chang, Q. Li, Z. Zhang, M. Qiu, T. Ye, and Y. Su, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21, 60 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

Lindsay, A. C.

S. T. Winnall, A. C. Lindsay, and G. A. Knight, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1003 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Loayssa, A.

A. Loayssa and F. J. Lahoz, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C.

Mitchell, A.

K. Ghorbani, A. Mitchell, R. B. Waterhouse, and M. W. Austin, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 645(1999).
[CrossRef]

Mork, J.

Nakano, Y.

H. Park, J. Yi, Y. Byun, S. Lee, S. Kim, M. Takenaka, and Y. Nakano, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 4378 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oh, M. C.

J. Han, H. Erlig, D. Chang, M. C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, W. Steier, and H. Fetterman, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 531 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pan, Z.

C. Yu, Q. Yu, Z. Pan, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 341 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.

H. Park, J. Yi, Y. Byun, S. Lee, S. Kim, M. Takenaka, and Y. Nakano, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 4378 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Poole, C. D.

C. D. Poole, N. S. Bergano, R. E. Wagner, and H. J. Schulte, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1185 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, M.

Q. Chang, Q. Li, Z. Zhang, M. Qiu, T. Ye, and Y. Su, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21, 60 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sahin, A. B.

C. Yu, Q. Yu, Z. Pan, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 341 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sales, S.

Schulte, H. J.

C. D. Poole, N. S. Bergano, R. E. Wagner, and H. J. Schulte, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1185 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Steier, W.

J. Han, H. Erlig, D. Chang, M. C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, W. Steier, and H. Fetterman, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 531 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Steier, W. H.

S. S. Lee, A. H. Udupa, H. Erlig, H. Zhang, Y. Chang, C. Zhang, D. H. Chang, D. Bhattacharya, B. Tsap, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, and H. R. Fetterman, IEEE Microwave Guided Wave Lett. 9, 357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Su, Y.

Q. Chang, Q. Li, Z. Zhang, M. Qiu, T. Ye, and Y. Su, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21, 60 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Takenaka, M.

H. Park, J. Yi, Y. Byun, S. Lee, S. Kim, M. Takenaka, and Y. Nakano, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 4378 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tsap, B.

S. S. Lee, A. H. Udupa, H. Erlig, H. Zhang, Y. Chang, C. Zhang, D. H. Chang, D. Bhattacharya, B. Tsap, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, and H. R. Fetterman, IEEE Microwave Guided Wave Lett. 9, 357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Udupa, A. H.

S. S. Lee, A. H. Udupa, H. Erlig, H. Zhang, Y. Chang, C. Zhang, D. H. Chang, D. Bhattacharya, B. Tsap, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, and H. R. Fetterman, IEEE Microwave Guided Wave Lett. 9, 357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, R. E.

C. D. Poole, N. S. Bergano, R. E. Wagner, and H. J. Schulte, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1185 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wale, M. J.

W. S. Birkmayer and M. J. Wale, Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. J Optoelectron. 139, 301 (1992).

Wang, Q.

Wang, Y.

Waterhouse, R. B.

K. Ghorbani, A. Mitchell, R. B. Waterhouse, and M. W. Austin, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 645(1999).
[CrossRef]

Wen, Y. J.

Willner, A. E.

C. Yu, Q. Yu, Z. Pan, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 341 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Winnall, S. T.

S. T. Winnall, A. C. Lindsay, and G. A. Knight, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1003 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Xue, W.

Ye, T.

Q. Chang, Q. Li, Z. Zhang, M. Qiu, T. Ye, and Y. Su, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21, 60 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yee, T. K.

J. F. Coward, T. K. Yee, C. H. Chalfant, and P. H. Chang, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 2201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yi, J.

H. Park, J. Yi, Y. Byun, S. Lee, S. Kim, M. Takenaka, and Y. Nakano, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 4378 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C.

C. Yu, Q. Yu, Z. Pan, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 341 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Q.

C. Yu, Q. Yu, Z. Pan, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 341 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

J. Han, H. Erlig, D. Chang, M. C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, W. Steier, and H. Fetterman, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 531 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Lee, A. H. Udupa, H. Erlig, H. Zhang, Y. Chang, C. Zhang, D. H. Chang, D. Bhattacharya, B. Tsap, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, and H. R. Fetterman, IEEE Microwave Guided Wave Lett. 9, 357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

J. Han, H. Erlig, D. Chang, M. C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, W. Steier, and H. Fetterman, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 531 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Lee, A. H. Udupa, H. Erlig, H. Zhang, Y. Chang, C. Zhang, D. H. Chang, D. Bhattacharya, B. Tsap, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, and H. R. Fetterman, IEEE Microwave Guided Wave Lett. 9, 357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

Q. Chang, Q. Li, Z. Zhang, M. Qiu, T. Ye, and Y. Su, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21, 60 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Microwave Guided Wave Lett. (1)

S. S. Lee, A. H. Udupa, H. Erlig, H. Zhang, Y. Chang, C. Zhang, D. H. Chang, D. Bhattacharya, B. Tsap, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, and H. R. Fetterman, IEEE Microwave Guided Wave Lett. 9, 357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (4)

J. Han, H. Erlig, D. Chang, M. C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, W. Steier, and H. Fetterman, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 531 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Loayssa and F. J. Lahoz, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Chang, Q. Li, Z. Zhang, M. Qiu, T. Ye, and Y. Su, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21, 60 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Yu, Q. Yu, Z. Pan, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 341 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (2)

S. T. Winnall, A. C. Lindsay, and G. A. Knight, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1003 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Ghorbani, A. Mitchell, R. B. Waterhouse, and M. W. Austin, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 645(1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Park, J. Yi, Y. Byun, S. Lee, S. Kim, M. Takenaka, and Y. Nakano, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 4378 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

C. D. Poole, N. S. Bergano, R. E. Wagner, and H. J. Schulte, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1185 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Coward, T. K. Yee, C. H. Chalfant, and P. H. Chang, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 2201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. J Optoelectron. (1)

W. S. Birkmayer and M. J. Wale, Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. J Optoelectron. 139, 301 (1992).

Other (1)

D. Derickson, Fiber Optic Test and Measurement(Prentice-Hall, 1997).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup of the proposed linear photonic RF phase shifter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical spectrum of modulated optical signal.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Waveforms of the obtained 19.906 GHz RF signal with phase shifts of 0 ° , 90 ° , and 180 ° .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured phase shift versus applied bias voltage to the phase modulator.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E MZM ( t ) = x ^ · ( A 1 e j 2 π f l t + A 2 e j 2 π f u t ) .
E DGD = ( x ^ · A 1 e j 2 π f l t ) + ( y ^ · A 2 e j 2 π f u t ) .
E PM ( t ) = ( x ^ · A 1 e j 2 π f l t + ( V / V π ) π ) + ( y ^ · A 2 e j 2 π f u t + η ( V / V π ) π ) .
E ( t ) pol = 2 2 · x ^ ( A 1 e j 2 π f l t + ( V / V π ) π + A 2 e j 2 π f u t + η ( V / V π ) π ) .
ϕ = ( η 1 ) π V / V π ,
i ( t ) A 1 A 2 cos [ j 2 π ( f u f l ) t + ( η 1 ) π V / V π ] = A 1 A 2 cos ( j 2 π f t + ϕ ) .

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