Abstract

We have observed, in metamaterial with hyperbolic dispersion (an array of silver nanowires in alumina membrane), a sixfold reduction of the emission lifetime of dye deposited onto the metamaterial’s surface. This serves as evidence of an anomalously high density of photonic states in hyperbolic metamaterials, demonstrates the feasibility of an earlier-predicted single-photon gun, and paves the road for the use of metamaterials in quantum optics.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Yao, A. Reza, C. Van Vlack, M. M. Dignam, and S. Hughes, Phys. Rev. B 80, 195106 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  2. P. Yao, C. Van Vlack, A. Reza, M. Patterson, M. M. Dignam, and S. Hughes, Phys. Rev. B 80, 195106 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  3. W. Cai and V. Shalaev, Optical Metamaterials: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2009).
  4. N.Engheta and R.W.Ziolkowski, eds., Electromagnetic Metamaterials: Physics and Engineering Explorations (Wiley, 2006).
  5. A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, Nat. Mater. 6, 946 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. Stacy, and X. Zhang, Science 321, 930 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. M. A. Noginov, Yu. A. Barnakov, G. Zhu, T. Tumkur, H. Li, and E. E. Narimanov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 151105 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  8. Z. Jacob, L. V. Alekseyev, and E. Narimanov, Opt. Express 14, 8247 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. A. Salandrino and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. B 74, 075103(2006).
    [Crossref]
  10. Z. Jacob, I. Smolyaninov, and E. Narimanov, arXiv:0910.3981v2 (2009).
  11. J. Elser, R. Wangberg, V. A. Podolskiy, and E. E. Narimanov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261102 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  12. D. W. Lynch and W. R. Hunter, in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, Part II, E.D.Palik, ed. (Academic, 1985).
  13. The spectra were provided by the manufacturer, Exciton, Incorporated.
  14. V. A. Podolskiy, R. J. Pollard, A. Murphy, W. R. Hendren, P. R. Evans, R. Atkinson, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 127405 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

P. Yao, A. Reza, C. Van Vlack, M. M. Dignam, and S. Hughes, Phys. Rev. B 80, 195106 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Yao, C. Van Vlack, A. Reza, M. Patterson, M. M. Dignam, and S. Hughes, Phys. Rev. B 80, 195106 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. A. Noginov, Yu. A. Barnakov, G. Zhu, T. Tumkur, H. Li, and E. E. Narimanov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 151105 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. A. Podolskiy, R. J. Pollard, A. Murphy, W. R. Hendren, P. R. Evans, R. Atkinson, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 127405 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. Stacy, and X. Zhang, Science 321, 930 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, Nat. Mater. 6, 946 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

A. Salandrino and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. B 74, 075103(2006).
[Crossref]

J. Elser, R. Wangberg, V. A. Podolskiy, and E. E. Narimanov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261102 (2006).
[Crossref]

Z. Jacob, L. V. Alekseyev, and E. Narimanov, Opt. Express 14, 8247 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alekseyev, L.

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, Nat. Mater. 6, 946 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alekseyev, L. V.

Atkinson, R.

V. A. Podolskiy, R. J. Pollard, A. Murphy, W. R. Hendren, P. R. Evans, R. Atkinson, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 127405 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barnakov, Yu. A.

M. A. Noginov, Yu. A. Barnakov, G. Zhu, T. Tumkur, H. Li, and E. E. Narimanov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 151105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bartal, G.

J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. Stacy, and X. Zhang, Science 321, 930 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

W. Cai and V. Shalaev, Optical Metamaterials: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2009).

Dignam, M. M.

P. Yao, C. Van Vlack, A. Reza, M. Patterson, M. M. Dignam, and S. Hughes, Phys. Rev. B 80, 195106 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Yao, A. Reza, C. Van Vlack, M. M. Dignam, and S. Hughes, Phys. Rev. B 80, 195106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Elser, J.

J. Elser, R. Wangberg, V. A. Podolskiy, and E. E. Narimanov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261102 (2006).
[Crossref]

Engheta, N.

A. Salandrino and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. B 74, 075103(2006).
[Crossref]

Evans, P. R.

V. A. Podolskiy, R. J. Pollard, A. Murphy, W. R. Hendren, P. R. Evans, R. Atkinson, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 127405 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Franz, K. J.

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, Nat. Mater. 6, 946 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gmachl, C.

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, Nat. Mater. 6, 946 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hendren, W. R.

V. A. Podolskiy, R. J. Pollard, A. Murphy, W. R. Hendren, P. R. Evans, R. Atkinson, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 127405 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoffman, A. J.

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, Nat. Mater. 6, 946 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Howard, S. S.

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, Nat. Mater. 6, 946 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hughes, S.

P. Yao, C. Van Vlack, A. Reza, M. Patterson, M. M. Dignam, and S. Hughes, Phys. Rev. B 80, 195106 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Yao, A. Reza, C. Van Vlack, M. M. Dignam, and S. Hughes, Phys. Rev. B 80, 195106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hunter, W. R.

D. W. Lynch and W. R. Hunter, in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, Part II, E.D.Palik, ed. (Academic, 1985).

Jacob, Z.

Z. Jacob, L. V. Alekseyev, and E. Narimanov, Opt. Express 14, 8247 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Jacob, I. Smolyaninov, and E. Narimanov, arXiv:0910.3981v2 (2009).

Li, H.

M. A. Noginov, Yu. A. Barnakov, G. Zhu, T. Tumkur, H. Li, and E. E. Narimanov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 151105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. Stacy, and X. Zhang, Science 321, 930 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. Stacy, and X. Zhang, Science 321, 930 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lynch, D. W.

D. W. Lynch and W. R. Hunter, in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, Part II, E.D.Palik, ed. (Academic, 1985).

Murphy, A.

V. A. Podolskiy, R. J. Pollard, A. Murphy, W. R. Hendren, P. R. Evans, R. Atkinson, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 127405 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Narimanov, E.

Z. Jacob, L. V. Alekseyev, and E. Narimanov, Opt. Express 14, 8247 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Jacob, I. Smolyaninov, and E. Narimanov, arXiv:0910.3981v2 (2009).

Narimanov, E. E.

M. A. Noginov, Yu. A. Barnakov, G. Zhu, T. Tumkur, H. Li, and E. E. Narimanov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 151105 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, Nat. Mater. 6, 946 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Elser, R. Wangberg, V. A. Podolskiy, and E. E. Narimanov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261102 (2006).
[Crossref]

Noginov, M. A.

M. A. Noginov, Yu. A. Barnakov, G. Zhu, T. Tumkur, H. Li, and E. E. Narimanov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 151105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Patterson, M.

P. Yao, C. Van Vlack, A. Reza, M. Patterson, M. M. Dignam, and S. Hughes, Phys. Rev. B 80, 195106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Podolskiy, V. A.

V. A. Podolskiy, R. J. Pollard, A. Murphy, W. R. Hendren, P. R. Evans, R. Atkinson, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 127405 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, Nat. Mater. 6, 946 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Elser, R. Wangberg, V. A. Podolskiy, and E. E. Narimanov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261102 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pollard, R. J.

V. A. Podolskiy, R. J. Pollard, A. Murphy, W. R. Hendren, P. R. Evans, R. Atkinson, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 127405 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reza, A.

P. Yao, C. Van Vlack, A. Reza, M. Patterson, M. M. Dignam, and S. Hughes, Phys. Rev. B 80, 195106 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Yao, A. Reza, C. Van Vlack, M. M. Dignam, and S. Hughes, Phys. Rev. B 80, 195106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Salandrino, A.

A. Salandrino and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. B 74, 075103(2006).
[Crossref]

Shalaev, V.

W. Cai and V. Shalaev, Optical Metamaterials: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2009).

Sivco, D. L.

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, Nat. Mater. 6, 946 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smolyaninov, I.

Z. Jacob, I. Smolyaninov, and E. Narimanov, arXiv:0910.3981v2 (2009).

Stacy, A.

J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. Stacy, and X. Zhang, Science 321, 930 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, C.

J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. Stacy, and X. Zhang, Science 321, 930 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tumkur, T.

M. A. Noginov, Yu. A. Barnakov, G. Zhu, T. Tumkur, H. Li, and E. E. Narimanov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 151105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Van Vlack, C.

P. Yao, A. Reza, C. Van Vlack, M. M. Dignam, and S. Hughes, Phys. Rev. B 80, 195106 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Yao, C. Van Vlack, A. Reza, M. Patterson, M. M. Dignam, and S. Hughes, Phys. Rev. B 80, 195106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. Stacy, and X. Zhang, Science 321, 930 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wangberg, R.

J. Elser, R. Wangberg, V. A. Podolskiy, and E. E. Narimanov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261102 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wasserman, D.

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, Nat. Mater. 6, 946 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wurtz, G. A.

V. A. Podolskiy, R. J. Pollard, A. Murphy, W. R. Hendren, P. R. Evans, R. Atkinson, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 127405 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yao, J.

J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. Stacy, and X. Zhang, Science 321, 930 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yao, P.

P. Yao, A. Reza, C. Van Vlack, M. M. Dignam, and S. Hughes, Phys. Rev. B 80, 195106 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Yao, C. Van Vlack, A. Reza, M. Patterson, M. M. Dignam, and S. Hughes, Phys. Rev. B 80, 195106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zayats, A. V.

V. A. Podolskiy, R. J. Pollard, A. Murphy, W. R. Hendren, P. R. Evans, R. Atkinson, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 127405 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. Stacy, and X. Zhang, Science 321, 930 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, G.

M. A. Noginov, Yu. A. Barnakov, G. Zhu, T. Tumkur, H. Li, and E. E. Narimanov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 151105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. A. Noginov, Yu. A. Barnakov, G. Zhu, T. Tumkur, H. Li, and E. E. Narimanov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 151105 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Elser, R. Wangberg, V. A. Podolskiy, and E. E. Narimanov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261102 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (1)

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, Nat. Mater. 6, 946 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

A. Salandrino and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. B 74, 075103(2006).
[Crossref]

P. Yao, A. Reza, C. Van Vlack, M. M. Dignam, and S. Hughes, Phys. Rev. B 80, 195106 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Yao, C. Van Vlack, A. Reza, M. Patterson, M. M. Dignam, and S. Hughes, Phys. Rev. B 80, 195106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

V. A. Podolskiy, R. J. Pollard, A. Murphy, W. R. Hendren, P. R. Evans, R. Atkinson, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 127405 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. Stacy, and X. Zhang, Science 321, 930 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (5)

D. W. Lynch and W. R. Hunter, in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, Part II, E.D.Palik, ed. (Academic, 1985).

The spectra were provided by the manufacturer, Exciton, Incorporated.

W. Cai and V. Shalaev, Optical Metamaterials: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2009).

N.Engheta and R.W.Ziolkowski, eds., Electromagnetic Metamaterials: Physics and Engineering Explorations (Wiley, 2006).

Z. Jacob, I. Smolyaninov, and E. Narimanov, arXiv:0910.3981v2 (2009).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the sample: alumina membrane with circular silver nanowires (a hyperbolic metamaterial) coated with dye-doped polymeric film.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Angular dependence of the reflectance R in s and p polarizations at λ = 873 nm . Solid lines—calculation according to Eq. (1) of [6].

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Emission kinetics in the IR140/PMMA films deposited on (1) the top of pure alumina membrane, (2) gold film on glass, (3) silver film on glass, and (4) silver-filled alumina membrane.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated effective emission lifetimes of dipoles randomly oriented and uniformly distributed within PMMA film on the top of the silver-filled alumina membrane (normalized to the emission lifetime in pure PMMA).

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