Abstract

We present a novel materials concept for optical inscription of stable birefringent optical elements into guest–host type polymers by making use of chromophore aggregation. The method is based on photoalignment of azobenzene chromophores, the aggregation of which leads to significant enhancement and stabilization of the photoinduced birefringence. The obtained order parameter of the molecular alignment (0.3) in combination with the exceptional thermal stability of the anisotropy renders the material system unique among amorphous azobenzene-containing polymers and provides a route toward designing efficient photoresponsive optical elements through the guest–host type approach.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2009 (2)

S. Hvilsted, C. Sánchez, and R. Alcalá, J. Mater. Chem. 19, 6641 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Priimagi, K. Lindfors, M. Kaivola, and P. Rochon, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 1, 1183 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

T. J. White, N. V. Tabiryan, S. V. Serak, U. A. Horzhyk, V. P. Tondiglia, H. Koerner, R. A. Vaia, and T. J. Bunning, Soft Matter 4, 1796 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhang, C. G. Bazuin, and C. J. Barrett, Chem. Mater. 20, 29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Priimagi, J. Vapaavuori, F. J. Rodriguez, C. F. J. Faul, M. T. Heino, O. Ikkala, M. Kauranen, and M. Kaivola, Chem. Mater. 20, 6358 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Zettsu, T. Ogasawara, N. Mizoshita, S. Nagano, and T. Seki, Adv. Mater. 20, 516 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

C. J. Barrett, J. Mamiya, K. G. Yager, and T. Ikeda, Soft Matter 3, 1249 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yu, T. Maeda, J. Mamiya, and T. Ikeda, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 46, 881 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Kulikovska, L. M. Goldenberg, and J. Stumpe, Chem. Mater. 19, 3343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Priimagi, M. Kaivola, F. J. Rodriguez, and M. Kauranen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

A. Priimagi, S. Cattaneo, R. H. A. Ras, S. Valkama, O. Ikkala, and M. Kauranen, Chem. Mater. 17, 5798 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Pollino and M. Weck, Chem. Soc. Rev. 34, 193 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

S. K. Yesodha, C. K. Sadashiva Pillai, and N. Tsutsumi, Prog. Polym. Sci. 29, 45 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Rodríguez, C. Sánchez, B. Villacampa, R. Alcalá, R. Cases, M. V. Collados, S. Hvilsted, and M. Strange, Polymer 45, 6003 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

I. Zebger, M. Rutloh, U. Hoffmann, J. Stumpe, H. W. Siesler, and S. Hvilsted, J. Phys. Chem. A 106, 3454 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Würthner, S. Yao, T. Debaerdemaeker, and R. Wortmann, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 9431 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Natansohn and P. Rochon, Chem. Rev. 102, 4139 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

F. Würthner and S. Yao, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 39, 1978 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Lagugné-Labarthet, S. Freiberg, C. Pellerin, M. Pézolet, A. Natansohn, and P. Rochon, Macromolecules 33, 6815 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. Schönhoff, M. Mertesdorf, and M. Lösche, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 7558 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

C. Barrett, A. Natansohn, and P. Rochon, Chem. Mater. 7, 899 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Brown, A. Natansohn, and P. Rochon, Macromolecules 28, 6116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, R. B. Comizzoli, H. E. Katz, and M. L. Schilling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Alcalá, R.

S. Hvilsted, C. Sánchez, and R. Alcalá, J. Mater. Chem. 19, 6641 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Rodríguez, C. Sánchez, B. Villacampa, R. Alcalá, R. Cases, M. V. Collados, S. Hvilsted, and M. Strange, Polymer 45, 6003 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barrett, C.

C. Barrett, A. Natansohn, and P. Rochon, Chem. Mater. 7, 899 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Barrett, C. J.

Q. Zhang, C. G. Bazuin, and C. J. Barrett, Chem. Mater. 20, 29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Barrett, J. Mamiya, K. G. Yager, and T. Ikeda, Soft Matter 3, 1249 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bazuin, C. G.

Q. Zhang, C. G. Bazuin, and C. J. Barrett, Chem. Mater. 20, 29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brown, D.

D. Brown, A. Natansohn, and P. Rochon, Macromolecules 28, 6116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bunning, T. J.

T. J. White, N. V. Tabiryan, S. V. Serak, U. A. Horzhyk, V. P. Tondiglia, H. Koerner, R. A. Vaia, and T. J. Bunning, Soft Matter 4, 1796 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cases, R.

F. J. Rodríguez, C. Sánchez, B. Villacampa, R. Alcalá, R. Cases, M. V. Collados, S. Hvilsted, and M. Strange, Polymer 45, 6003 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cattaneo, S.

A. Priimagi, S. Cattaneo, R. H. A. Ras, S. Valkama, O. Ikkala, and M. Kauranen, Chem. Mater. 17, 5798 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Collados, M. V.

F. J. Rodríguez, C. Sánchez, B. Villacampa, R. Alcalá, R. Cases, M. V. Collados, S. Hvilsted, and M. Strange, Polymer 45, 6003 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Comizzoli, R. B.

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, R. B. Comizzoli, H. E. Katz, and M. L. Schilling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Debaerdemaeker, T.

F. Würthner, S. Yao, T. Debaerdemaeker, and R. Wortmann, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 9431 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faul, C. F. J.

A. Priimagi, J. Vapaavuori, F. J. Rodriguez, C. F. J. Faul, M. T. Heino, O. Ikkala, M. Kauranen, and M. Kaivola, Chem. Mater. 20, 6358 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Freiberg, S.

F. Lagugné-Labarthet, S. Freiberg, C. Pellerin, M. Pézolet, A. Natansohn, and P. Rochon, Macromolecules 33, 6815 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Goldenberg, L. M.

O. Kulikovska, L. M. Goldenberg, and J. Stumpe, Chem. Mater. 19, 3343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Heino, M. T.

A. Priimagi, J. Vapaavuori, F. J. Rodriguez, C. F. J. Faul, M. T. Heino, O. Ikkala, M. Kauranen, and M. Kaivola, Chem. Mater. 20, 6358 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, U.

I. Zebger, M. Rutloh, U. Hoffmann, J. Stumpe, H. W. Siesler, and S. Hvilsted, J. Phys. Chem. A 106, 3454 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Holland, W. R.

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, R. B. Comizzoli, H. E. Katz, and M. L. Schilling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Horzhyk, U. A.

T. J. White, N. V. Tabiryan, S. V. Serak, U. A. Horzhyk, V. P. Tondiglia, H. Koerner, R. A. Vaia, and T. J. Bunning, Soft Matter 4, 1796 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hvilsted, S.

S. Hvilsted, C. Sánchez, and R. Alcalá, J. Mater. Chem. 19, 6641 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Rodríguez, C. Sánchez, B. Villacampa, R. Alcalá, R. Cases, M. V. Collados, S. Hvilsted, and M. Strange, Polymer 45, 6003 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Zebger, M. Rutloh, U. Hoffmann, J. Stumpe, H. W. Siesler, and S. Hvilsted, J. Phys. Chem. A 106, 3454 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, T.

C. J. Barrett, J. Mamiya, K. G. Yager, and T. Ikeda, Soft Matter 3, 1249 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yu, T. Maeda, J. Mamiya, and T. Ikeda, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 46, 881 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ikkala, O.

A. Priimagi, J. Vapaavuori, F. J. Rodriguez, C. F. J. Faul, M. T. Heino, O. Ikkala, M. Kauranen, and M. Kaivola, Chem. Mater. 20, 6358 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Priimagi, S. Cattaneo, R. H. A. Ras, S. Valkama, O. Ikkala, and M. Kauranen, Chem. Mater. 17, 5798 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kaivola, M.

A. Priimagi, K. Lindfors, M. Kaivola, and P. Rochon, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 1, 1183 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Priimagi, J. Vapaavuori, F. J. Rodriguez, C. F. J. Faul, M. T. Heino, O. Ikkala, M. Kauranen, and M. Kaivola, Chem. Mater. 20, 6358 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Priimagi, M. Kaivola, F. J. Rodriguez, and M. Kauranen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Katz, H. E.

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, R. B. Comizzoli, H. E. Katz, and M. L. Schilling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kauranen, M.

A. Priimagi, J. Vapaavuori, F. J. Rodriguez, C. F. J. Faul, M. T. Heino, O. Ikkala, M. Kauranen, and M. Kaivola, Chem. Mater. 20, 6358 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Priimagi, M. Kaivola, F. J. Rodriguez, and M. Kauranen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Priimagi, S. Cattaneo, R. H. A. Ras, S. Valkama, O. Ikkala, and M. Kauranen, Chem. Mater. 17, 5798 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Knoll, W.

Photoreactive Organic Thin Films, Z.Sekkat and W. Knoll, eds. (Academic, 2002).

Koerner, H.

T. J. White, N. V. Tabiryan, S. V. Serak, U. A. Horzhyk, V. P. Tondiglia, H. Koerner, R. A. Vaia, and T. J. Bunning, Soft Matter 4, 1796 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kulikovska, O.

O. Kulikovska, L. M. Goldenberg, and J. Stumpe, Chem. Mater. 19, 3343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuzyk, M. G.

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, R. B. Comizzoli, H. E. Katz, and M. L. Schilling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lagugné-Labarthet, F.

F. Lagugné-Labarthet, S. Freiberg, C. Pellerin, M. Pézolet, A. Natansohn, and P. Rochon, Macromolecules 33, 6815 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lalama, S. J.

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, R. B. Comizzoli, H. E. Katz, and M. L. Schilling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lindfors, K.

A. Priimagi, K. Lindfors, M. Kaivola, and P. Rochon, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 1, 1183 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lösche, M.

M. Schönhoff, M. Mertesdorf, and M. Lösche, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 7558 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, T.

Y. Yu, T. Maeda, J. Mamiya, and T. Ikeda, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 46, 881 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mamiya, J.

Y. Yu, T. Maeda, J. Mamiya, and T. Ikeda, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 46, 881 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Barrett, J. Mamiya, K. G. Yager, and T. Ikeda, Soft Matter 3, 1249 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mertesdorf, M.

M. Schönhoff, M. Mertesdorf, and M. Lösche, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 7558 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mizoshita, N.

N. Zettsu, T. Ogasawara, N. Mizoshita, S. Nagano, and T. Seki, Adv. Mater. 20, 516 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nagano, S.

N. Zettsu, T. Ogasawara, N. Mizoshita, S. Nagano, and T. Seki, Adv. Mater. 20, 516 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Natansohn, A.

A. Natansohn and P. Rochon, Chem. Rev. 102, 4139 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Lagugné-Labarthet, S. Freiberg, C. Pellerin, M. Pézolet, A. Natansohn, and P. Rochon, Macromolecules 33, 6815 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Barrett, A. Natansohn, and P. Rochon, Chem. Mater. 7, 899 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Brown, A. Natansohn, and P. Rochon, Macromolecules 28, 6116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ogasawara, T.

N. Zettsu, T. Ogasawara, N. Mizoshita, S. Nagano, and T. Seki, Adv. Mater. 20, 516 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pellerin, C.

F. Lagugné-Labarthet, S. Freiberg, C. Pellerin, M. Pézolet, A. Natansohn, and P. Rochon, Macromolecules 33, 6815 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pézolet, M.

F. Lagugné-Labarthet, S. Freiberg, C. Pellerin, M. Pézolet, A. Natansohn, and P. Rochon, Macromolecules 33, 6815 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pollino, J. M.

J. M. Pollino and M. Weck, Chem. Soc. Rev. 34, 193 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Priimagi, A.

A. Priimagi, K. Lindfors, M. Kaivola, and P. Rochon, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 1, 1183 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Priimagi, J. Vapaavuori, F. J. Rodriguez, C. F. J. Faul, M. T. Heino, O. Ikkala, M. Kauranen, and M. Kaivola, Chem. Mater. 20, 6358 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Priimagi, M. Kaivola, F. J. Rodriguez, and M. Kauranen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Priimagi, S. Cattaneo, R. H. A. Ras, S. Valkama, O. Ikkala, and M. Kauranen, Chem. Mater. 17, 5798 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ras, R. H. A.

A. Priimagi, S. Cattaneo, R. H. A. Ras, S. Valkama, O. Ikkala, and M. Kauranen, Chem. Mater. 17, 5798 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rochon, P.

A. Priimagi, K. Lindfors, M. Kaivola, and P. Rochon, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 1, 1183 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Natansohn and P. Rochon, Chem. Rev. 102, 4139 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Lagugné-Labarthet, S. Freiberg, C. Pellerin, M. Pézolet, A. Natansohn, and P. Rochon, Macromolecules 33, 6815 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Barrett, A. Natansohn, and P. Rochon, Chem. Mater. 7, 899 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Brown, A. Natansohn, and P. Rochon, Macromolecules 28, 6116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, F. J.

A. Priimagi, J. Vapaavuori, F. J. Rodriguez, C. F. J. Faul, M. T. Heino, O. Ikkala, M. Kauranen, and M. Kaivola, Chem. Mater. 20, 6358 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Priimagi, M. Kaivola, F. J. Rodriguez, and M. Kauranen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rodríguez, F. J.

F. J. Rodríguez, C. Sánchez, B. Villacampa, R. Alcalá, R. Cases, M. V. Collados, S. Hvilsted, and M. Strange, Polymer 45, 6003 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rutloh, M.

I. Zebger, M. Rutloh, U. Hoffmann, J. Stumpe, H. W. Siesler, and S. Hvilsted, J. Phys. Chem. A 106, 3454 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sadashiva Pillai, C. K.

S. K. Yesodha, C. K. Sadashiva Pillai, and N. Tsutsumi, Prog. Polym. Sci. 29, 45 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sánchez, C.

S. Hvilsted, C. Sánchez, and R. Alcalá, J. Mater. Chem. 19, 6641 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Rodríguez, C. Sánchez, B. Villacampa, R. Alcalá, R. Cases, M. V. Collados, S. Hvilsted, and M. Strange, Polymer 45, 6003 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schilling, M. L.

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, R. B. Comizzoli, H. E. Katz, and M. L. Schilling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Schönhoff, M.

M. Schönhoff, M. Mertesdorf, and M. Lösche, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 7558 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Seki, T.

N. Zettsu, T. Ogasawara, N. Mizoshita, S. Nagano, and T. Seki, Adv. Mater. 20, 516 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Serak, S. V.

T. J. White, N. V. Tabiryan, S. V. Serak, U. A. Horzhyk, V. P. Tondiglia, H. Koerner, R. A. Vaia, and T. J. Bunning, Soft Matter 4, 1796 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Siesler, H. W.

I. Zebger, M. Rutloh, U. Hoffmann, J. Stumpe, H. W. Siesler, and S. Hvilsted, J. Phys. Chem. A 106, 3454 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Singer, K. D.

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, R. B. Comizzoli, H. E. Katz, and M. L. Schilling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sohn, J. E.

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, R. B. Comizzoli, H. E. Katz, and M. L. Schilling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Strange, M.

F. J. Rodríguez, C. Sánchez, B. Villacampa, R. Alcalá, R. Cases, M. V. Collados, S. Hvilsted, and M. Strange, Polymer 45, 6003 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stumpe, J.

O. Kulikovska, L. M. Goldenberg, and J. Stumpe, Chem. Mater. 19, 3343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Zebger, M. Rutloh, U. Hoffmann, J. Stumpe, H. W. Siesler, and S. Hvilsted, J. Phys. Chem. A 106, 3454 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tabiryan, N. V.

T. J. White, N. V. Tabiryan, S. V. Serak, U. A. Horzhyk, V. P. Tondiglia, H. Koerner, R. A. Vaia, and T. J. Bunning, Soft Matter 4, 1796 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tondiglia, V. P.

T. J. White, N. V. Tabiryan, S. V. Serak, U. A. Horzhyk, V. P. Tondiglia, H. Koerner, R. A. Vaia, and T. J. Bunning, Soft Matter 4, 1796 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tsutsumi, N.

S. K. Yesodha, C. K. Sadashiva Pillai, and N. Tsutsumi, Prog. Polym. Sci. 29, 45 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vaia, R. A.

T. J. White, N. V. Tabiryan, S. V. Serak, U. A. Horzhyk, V. P. Tondiglia, H. Koerner, R. A. Vaia, and T. J. Bunning, Soft Matter 4, 1796 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Valkama, S.

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Photoreactive Organic Thin Films, Z.Sekkat and W. Knoll, eds. (Academic, 2002).

Smart Light-Responsive Materials: Azobenzene-Containing Polymers and Liquid Crystals, Y.Zhao and T.Ikeda, eds. (Wiley, 2009).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption spectra of the thin films of 7 wt. % (unaggregated; Sample 1, thickness 1630 nm ) and 40 wt. % (aggregated; Sample 2, thickness 380 nm ) of Disperse Red 1 in a PS host. The thicknesses of the samples were chosen to yield comparable optical densities at the writing wavelength. The chemical structure of Disperse Red 1 is shown in the inset.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photoinduced birefringence for Samples 1 and 2 upon irradiation with linearly polarized light at 457 nm with a power density of (a) 30 mW / cm 2 and (b) 300 mW / cm 2 . The irradiation period is from 60 to 1200 s .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a), (b) Polarized absorption spectra, measured at normal incidence, for Sample 2 upon irradiation with 30 and 300 mW / cm 2 intensity, respectively. The inset of (b) displays the unpolarized absorption spectrum of Sample 2 before (solid curve) and after (dashed curve) irradiation ( 457 nm , 300 mW / cm 2 , 20 min ). A 0 denotes the absorption spectrum prior to irradiation.

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