Abstract

We describe a simple approach to detect small mechanical displacements by scattering evanescent optical waves confined around an optical waveguide. Our experimental setup consists of a microcantilever brought into the proximity of a tapered optical fiber. The scattering of evanescent waves and hence the optical transmission through the tapered fiber is strongly dependent on the separation between the fiber and the microcantilever, allowing for sensitive detection of the small oscillations of the microcantilever. Our approach does not require a coherent laser source, yet it provides a displacement sensitivity of ~260fmHz1/2 at a small power level of 38μW. It is suitable for scanning probe microscopy and could eventually be adapted to nanomechanical resonators.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. K. L. Ekinci and M. L. Roukes, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 061101 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. V. Lavrik, M. J. Sepaniak, and P. G. Datskos, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2229 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Li, W. H. P. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, Nat. Nanotechnol. 4, 377 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. I. D. Vlaminck, J. Roels, D. Taillaert, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, L. Lagae, and G. Borghs, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 233116 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Anetsberger, O. Arcizet, Q. P. Unterreithmeier, R. Riviere, A. Schliesser, E. M. Weig, J. P. Kotthaus, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Phys. 5, 909 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Q. P. Unterreithmeier, S. Manus, and J. P. Kotthaus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 263104 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. Liu, F. Giesen, M. Belov, J. Losby, J. Moroz, A. E. Fraser, G. McKinnon, T. J. Clement, V. Sauer, W. K. Hiebert, and M. R. Freeman, Nat. Nanotech. 3, 715 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. S. Verbridge, H. G. Craighead, and J. M. Parpia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 013112 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Meyer and N. M. Amer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1045 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Karabacak, T. Kouh, C. C. Huang, and K. L. Ekinci, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 193122 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. M. Karabacak, K. L. Ekinci, C. H. Gan, G. J. Gbur, M. S. Ünlü, S. B. Ippolito, B. B. Goldberg, and P. S. Carney, Opt. Lett. 32, 1881 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. B. E. Little, J.-P. Laine, and H. A. Haus, J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 704 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Eichenfield, C. P. Michael, R. Perahia, and O. Painter, Nat. Photon. 1, 416 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. L. Povinelli, M. Loncar, M. Ibanescu, E. J. Smythe, S. G. Johnson, F. Capasso, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Opt. Lett. 30, 3042 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. N. Israelachvili, Intermolecular and Surface Forces, 2nd ed. (Academic, 1992).
  16. A. N. Cleland, Foundations of Nanomechanics, 1st ed. (Springer, 2002).
  17. D. M. Karabacak, V. Yakhot, and K. L. Ekinci, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 254505 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

M. Li, W. H. P. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, Nat. Nanotechnol. 4, 377 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Anetsberger, O. Arcizet, Q. P. Unterreithmeier, R. Riviere, A. Schliesser, E. M. Weig, J. P. Kotthaus, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Phys. 5, 909 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. P. Unterreithmeier, S. Manus, and J. P. Kotthaus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 263104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

N. Liu, F. Giesen, M. Belov, J. Losby, J. Moroz, A. E. Fraser, G. McKinnon, T. J. Clement, V. Sauer, W. K. Hiebert, and M. R. Freeman, Nat. Nanotech. 3, 715 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Verbridge, H. G. Craighead, and J. M. Parpia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 013112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

I. D. Vlaminck, J. Roels, D. Taillaert, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, L. Lagae, and G. Borghs, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 233116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Eichenfield, C. P. Michael, R. Perahia, and O. Painter, Nat. Photon. 1, 416 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Karabacak, V. Yakhot, and K. L. Ekinci, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 254505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Karabacak, K. L. Ekinci, C. H. Gan, G. J. Gbur, M. S. Ünlü, S. B. Ippolito, B. B. Goldberg, and P. S. Carney, Opt. Lett. 32, 1881 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

D. Karabacak, T. Kouh, C. C. Huang, and K. L. Ekinci, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 193122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

N. V. Lavrik, M. J. Sepaniak, and P. G. Datskos, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2229 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1988 (1)

G. Meyer and N. M. Amer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1045 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Amer, N. M.

G. Meyer and N. M. Amer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1045 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Anetsberger, G.

G. Anetsberger, O. Arcizet, Q. P. Unterreithmeier, R. Riviere, A. Schliesser, E. M. Weig, J. P. Kotthaus, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Phys. 5, 909 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Arcizet, O.

G. Anetsberger, O. Arcizet, Q. P. Unterreithmeier, R. Riviere, A. Schliesser, E. M. Weig, J. P. Kotthaus, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Phys. 5, 909 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

I. D. Vlaminck, J. Roels, D. Taillaert, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, L. Lagae, and G. Borghs, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 233116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Belov, M.

N. Liu, F. Giesen, M. Belov, J. Losby, J. Moroz, A. E. Fraser, G. McKinnon, T. J. Clement, V. Sauer, W. K. Hiebert, and M. R. Freeman, Nat. Nanotech. 3, 715 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Borghs, G.

I. D. Vlaminck, J. Roels, D. Taillaert, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, L. Lagae, and G. Borghs, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 233116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

Carney, P. S.

Cleland, A. N.

A. N. Cleland, Foundations of Nanomechanics, 1st ed. (Springer, 2002).

Clement, T. J.

N. Liu, F. Giesen, M. Belov, J. Losby, J. Moroz, A. E. Fraser, G. McKinnon, T. J. Clement, V. Sauer, W. K. Hiebert, and M. R. Freeman, Nat. Nanotech. 3, 715 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Craighead, H. G.

S. S. Verbridge, H. G. Craighead, and J. M. Parpia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 013112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Datskos, P. G.

N. V. Lavrik, M. J. Sepaniak, and P. G. Datskos, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2229 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eichenfield, M.

M. Eichenfield, C. P. Michael, R. Perahia, and O. Painter, Nat. Photon. 1, 416 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ekinci, K. L.

D. M. Karabacak, V. Yakhot, and K. L. Ekinci, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 254505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Karabacak, K. L. Ekinci, C. H. Gan, G. J. Gbur, M. S. Ünlü, S. B. Ippolito, B. B. Goldberg, and P. S. Carney, Opt. Lett. 32, 1881 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Karabacak, T. Kouh, C. C. Huang, and K. L. Ekinci, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 193122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Ekinci and M. L. Roukes, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 061101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, A. E.

N. Liu, F. Giesen, M. Belov, J. Losby, J. Moroz, A. E. Fraser, G. McKinnon, T. J. Clement, V. Sauer, W. K. Hiebert, and M. R. Freeman, Nat. Nanotech. 3, 715 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, M. R.

N. Liu, F. Giesen, M. Belov, J. Losby, J. Moroz, A. E. Fraser, G. McKinnon, T. J. Clement, V. Sauer, W. K. Hiebert, and M. R. Freeman, Nat. Nanotech. 3, 715 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gan, C. H.

Gbur, G. J.

Giesen, F.

N. Liu, F. Giesen, M. Belov, J. Losby, J. Moroz, A. E. Fraser, G. McKinnon, T. J. Clement, V. Sauer, W. K. Hiebert, and M. R. Freeman, Nat. Nanotech. 3, 715 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, B. B.

Haus, H. A.

Hiebert, W. K.

N. Liu, F. Giesen, M. Belov, J. Losby, J. Moroz, A. E. Fraser, G. McKinnon, T. J. Clement, V. Sauer, W. K. Hiebert, and M. R. Freeman, Nat. Nanotech. 3, 715 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C. C.

D. Karabacak, T. Kouh, C. C. Huang, and K. L. Ekinci, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 193122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ibanescu, M.

Ippolito, S. B.

Israelachvili, J. N.

J. N. Israelachvili, Intermolecular and Surface Forces, 2nd ed. (Academic, 1992).

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Johnson, S. G.

Karabacak, D.

D. Karabacak, T. Kouh, C. C. Huang, and K. L. Ekinci, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 193122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Karabacak, D. M.

Kippenberg, T. J.

G. Anetsberger, O. Arcizet, Q. P. Unterreithmeier, R. Riviere, A. Schliesser, E. M. Weig, J. P. Kotthaus, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Phys. 5, 909 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kotthaus, J. P.

G. Anetsberger, O. Arcizet, Q. P. Unterreithmeier, R. Riviere, A. Schliesser, E. M. Weig, J. P. Kotthaus, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Phys. 5, 909 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. P. Unterreithmeier, S. Manus, and J. P. Kotthaus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 263104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kouh, T.

D. Karabacak, T. Kouh, C. C. Huang, and K. L. Ekinci, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 193122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lagae, L.

I. D. Vlaminck, J. Roels, D. Taillaert, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, L. Lagae, and G. Borghs, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 233116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Laine, J.-P.

Lavrik, N. V.

N. V. Lavrik, M. J. Sepaniak, and P. G. Datskos, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2229 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

M. Li, W. H. P. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, Nat. Nanotechnol. 4, 377 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Little, B. E.

Liu, N.

N. Liu, F. Giesen, M. Belov, J. Losby, J. Moroz, A. E. Fraser, G. McKinnon, T. J. Clement, V. Sauer, W. K. Hiebert, and M. R. Freeman, Nat. Nanotech. 3, 715 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Loncar, M.

Losby, J.

N. Liu, F. Giesen, M. Belov, J. Losby, J. Moroz, A. E. Fraser, G. McKinnon, T. J. Clement, V. Sauer, W. K. Hiebert, and M. R. Freeman, Nat. Nanotech. 3, 715 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Manus, S.

Q. P. Unterreithmeier, S. Manus, and J. P. Kotthaus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 263104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McKinnon, G.

N. Liu, F. Giesen, M. Belov, J. Losby, J. Moroz, A. E. Fraser, G. McKinnon, T. J. Clement, V. Sauer, W. K. Hiebert, and M. R. Freeman, Nat. Nanotech. 3, 715 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, G.

G. Meyer and N. M. Amer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1045 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Michael, C. P.

M. Eichenfield, C. P. Michael, R. Perahia, and O. Painter, Nat. Photon. 1, 416 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moroz, J.

N. Liu, F. Giesen, M. Belov, J. Losby, J. Moroz, A. E. Fraser, G. McKinnon, T. J. Clement, V. Sauer, W. K. Hiebert, and M. R. Freeman, Nat. Nanotech. 3, 715 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O.

M. Eichenfield, C. P. Michael, R. Perahia, and O. Painter, Nat. Photon. 1, 416 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Parpia, J. M.

S. S. Verbridge, H. G. Craighead, and J. M. Parpia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 013112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Perahia, R.

M. Eichenfield, C. P. Michael, R. Perahia, and O. Painter, Nat. Photon. 1, 416 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pernice, W. H. P.

M. Li, W. H. P. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, Nat. Nanotechnol. 4, 377 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Povinelli, M. L.

Riviere, R.

G. Anetsberger, O. Arcizet, Q. P. Unterreithmeier, R. Riviere, A. Schliesser, E. M. Weig, J. P. Kotthaus, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Phys. 5, 909 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Roels, J.

I. D. Vlaminck, J. Roels, D. Taillaert, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, L. Lagae, and G. Borghs, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 233116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Roukes, M. L.

K. L. Ekinci and M. L. Roukes, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 061101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S, M.

Sauer, V.

N. Liu, F. Giesen, M. Belov, J. Losby, J. Moroz, A. E. Fraser, G. McKinnon, T. J. Clement, V. Sauer, W. K. Hiebert, and M. R. Freeman, Nat. Nanotech. 3, 715 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schliesser, A.

G. Anetsberger, O. Arcizet, Q. P. Unterreithmeier, R. Riviere, A. Schliesser, E. M. Weig, J. P. Kotthaus, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Phys. 5, 909 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sepaniak, M. J.

N. V. Lavrik, M. J. Sepaniak, and P. G. Datskos, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2229 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Smythe, E. J.

Taillaert, D.

I. D. Vlaminck, J. Roels, D. Taillaert, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, L. Lagae, and G. Borghs, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 233116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tang, H. X.

M. Li, W. H. P. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, Nat. Nanotechnol. 4, 377 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thourhout, D. V.

I. D. Vlaminck, J. Roels, D. Taillaert, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, L. Lagae, and G. Borghs, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 233116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Unterreithmeier, Q. P.

G. Anetsberger, O. Arcizet, Q. P. Unterreithmeier, R. Riviere, A. Schliesser, E. M. Weig, J. P. Kotthaus, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Phys. 5, 909 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. P. Unterreithmeier, S. Manus, and J. P. Kotthaus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 263104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Verbridge, S. S.

S. S. Verbridge, H. G. Craighead, and J. M. Parpia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 013112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vlaminck, I. D.

I. D. Vlaminck, J. Roels, D. Taillaert, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, L. Lagae, and G. Borghs, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 233116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Weig, E. M.

G. Anetsberger, O. Arcizet, Q. P. Unterreithmeier, R. Riviere, A. Schliesser, E. M. Weig, J. P. Kotthaus, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Phys. 5, 909 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yakhot, V.

D. M. Karabacak, V. Yakhot, and K. L. Ekinci, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 254505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

I. D. Vlaminck, J. Roels, D. Taillaert, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, L. Lagae, and G. Borghs, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 233116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Verbridge, H. G. Craighead, and J. M. Parpia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 013112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Meyer and N. M. Amer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1045 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. Karabacak, T. Kouh, C. C. Huang, and K. L. Ekinci, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 193122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. P. Unterreithmeier, S. Manus, and J. P. Kotthaus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 263104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nat. Nanotech. (1)

N. Liu, F. Giesen, M. Belov, J. Losby, J. Moroz, A. E. Fraser, G. McKinnon, T. J. Clement, V. Sauer, W. K. Hiebert, and M. R. Freeman, Nat. Nanotech. 3, 715 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

M. Li, W. H. P. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, Nat. Nanotechnol. 4, 377 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photon. (1)

M. Eichenfield, C. P. Michael, R. Perahia, and O. Painter, Nat. Photon. 1, 416 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

G. Anetsberger, O. Arcizet, Q. P. Unterreithmeier, R. Riviere, A. Schliesser, E. M. Weig, J. P. Kotthaus, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Phys. 5, 909 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. M. Karabacak, V. Yakhot, and K. L. Ekinci, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 254505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

K. L. Ekinci and M. L. Roukes, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 061101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. V. Lavrik, M. J. Sepaniak, and P. G. Datskos, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2229 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J. N. Israelachvili, Intermolecular and Surface Forces, 2nd ed. (Academic, 1992).

A. N. Cleland, Foundations of Nanomechanics, 1st ed. (Springer, 2002).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the experimental setup. (b) Cross-sectional view showing the coordinate system. (c) Microscope image of the fiber taper and microcantilever. Visible light is passed through the fiber taper in this image.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Normalized optical transmission T as a function of the separation z (solid curve). Symbols correspond to z values at which thermal noise spectra are measured. The inset shows a typical hysteresis behavior obtained from approach and retract curves. (b) Detection of small oscillations using the transmission properties of the system in (a). The solid curve is calculated from Eq. (1) by using experimental parameters, and data shown by symbols are obtained from spectrum analyzer measurements. The inset shows the thermal noise power spectral density of the microcantilever in its fundamental mode. The solid curve is a fit to a Lorentzian line shape. The data are taken at z 580 nm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Displacement amplitudes in the first two out-of-plane modes of the microcantilever measured by positioning the fiber taper along the length of the microcantilever. Solid curves are fits obtained from theoretical calculations. The inset shows the resonance line shapes measured close to the free end of the microcantilever. For all the measurements, the dc component of P out is 32 μW .

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P out ( t ) P in [ T + | T z | δ z ( t ) ] .

Metrics