Abstract

In telecentric scanning a large lateral scan area leads to an increase in the angle of incidence on each of the four anterior ocular surfaces (two for the cornea and two for the crystalline lens), causing significant reduction in the signal obtained from regions farther from the optical axis. We propose an optical coherence tomography scanning system, which achieves nearly normal incidences across the lateral locations of the four ocular surfaces. This provides an increase in the amount of light scattered back to the system, resulting in a higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The images of a model eye obtained with the proposed scan and conventional telecentric scan were compared. SNR improvement of 5dB and 12dB was observed for the anterior and the posterior lens surfaces, respectively. For the posterior corneal surface SNR improvement of 4dB was observed, while the SNR improvement for the anterior corneal surface was 0.7dB.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178(1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 113, 325 (1995).
  4. J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 112, 1584 (1994).
  5. J. J. Kałusny, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, Opt. Appl. 32, 581 (2002).
  6. O. Findl, B. Kiss, V. Petternel, R. Menapace, M. Georgopoulos, G. Rainer, and W. Drexler, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 669 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Koeppl, O. Findl, R. Menapace, K. Kriechbaum, M. Wirtitsch, W. Buehl, S. Sacu, and W. Drexler, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 31, 1290 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. I. Grulkowski, M. Gora, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Szlag, S. Marcos, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, Opt. Express 17, 4842 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. J. Coleman and S. K. Fish, Ophthalmol. Annu. 108, 1544 (2001).
  10. R. B. Rabbetts, Bennett & Rabbetts’ Clinical Visual Optics (Elsevier, 2007).
  11. A. Podoleanu, I. Charalambous, L. Plesea, A. Dogariu, and R. Rosen, Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1277 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2005 (1)

C. Koeppl, O. Findl, R. Menapace, K. Kriechbaum, M. Wirtitsch, W. Buehl, S. Sacu, and W. Drexler, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 31, 1290 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

A. Podoleanu, I. Charalambous, L. Plesea, A. Dogariu, and R. Rosen, Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1277 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

O. Findl, B. Kiss, V. Petternel, R. Menapace, M. Georgopoulos, G. Rainer, and W. Drexler, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 669 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. J. Kałusny, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, Opt. Appl. 32, 581 (2002).

2001 (1)

D. J. Coleman and S. K. Fish, Ophthalmol. Annu. 108, 1544 (2001).

1995 (2)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 113, 325 (1995).

1994 (1)

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 112, 1584 (1994).

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178(1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buehl, W.

C. Koeppl, O. Findl, R. Menapace, K. Kriechbaum, M. Wirtitsch, W. Buehl, S. Sacu, and W. Drexler, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 31, 1290 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178(1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charalambous, I.

A. Podoleanu, I. Charalambous, L. Plesea, A. Dogariu, and R. Rosen, Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1277 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coleman, D. J.

D. J. Coleman and S. K. Fish, Ophthalmol. Annu. 108, 1544 (2001).

Dogariu, A.

A. Podoleanu, I. Charalambous, L. Plesea, A. Dogariu, and R. Rosen, Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1277 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drexler, W.

C. Koeppl, O. Findl, R. Menapace, K. Kriechbaum, M. Wirtitsch, W. Buehl, S. Sacu, and W. Drexler, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 31, 1290 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. Findl, B. Kiss, V. Petternel, R. Menapace, M. Georgopoulos, G. Rainer, and W. Drexler, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 669 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Elzaiat, S. Y.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A. F.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Findl, O.

C. Koeppl, O. Findl, R. Menapace, K. Kriechbaum, M. Wirtitsch, W. Buehl, S. Sacu, and W. Drexler, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 31, 1290 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. Findl, B. Kiss, V. Petternel, R. Menapace, M. Georgopoulos, G. Rainer, and W. Drexler, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 669 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fish, S. K.

D. J. Coleman and S. K. Fish, Ophthalmol. Annu. 108, 1544 (2001).

Flotte,

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178(1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 113, 325 (1995).

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 112, 1584 (1994).

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178(1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Georgopoulos, M.

O. Findl, B. Kiss, V. Petternel, R. Menapace, M. Georgopoulos, G. Rainer, and W. Drexler, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 669 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gora, M.

Gorczynska, I.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178(1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grulkowski, I.

Hee, M. R.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 113, 325 (1995).

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 112, 1584 (1994).

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178(1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 113, 325 (1995).

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 112, 1584 (1994).

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178(1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 113, 325 (1995).

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 112, 1584 (1994).

Kalusny, J. J.

J. J. Kałusny, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, Opt. Appl. 32, 581 (2002).

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kiss, B.

O. Findl, B. Kiss, V. Petternel, R. Menapace, M. Georgopoulos, G. Rainer, and W. Drexler, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 669 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Koeppl, C.

C. Koeppl, O. Findl, R. Menapace, K. Kriechbaum, M. Wirtitsch, W. Buehl, S. Sacu, and W. Drexler, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 31, 1290 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kowalczyk, A.

Kriechbaum, K.

C. Koeppl, O. Findl, R. Menapace, K. Kriechbaum, M. Wirtitsch, W. Buehl, S. Sacu, and W. Drexler, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 31, 1290 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. P.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 113, 325 (1995).

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 112, 1584 (1994).

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178(1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcos, S.

Menapace, R.

C. Koeppl, O. Findl, R. Menapace, K. Kriechbaum, M. Wirtitsch, W. Buehl, S. Sacu, and W. Drexler, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 31, 1290 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. Findl, B. Kiss, V. Petternel, R. Menapace, M. Georgopoulos, G. Rainer, and W. Drexler, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 669 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Petternel, V.

O. Findl, B. Kiss, V. Petternel, R. Menapace, M. Georgopoulos, G. Rainer, and W. Drexler, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 669 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Plesea, L.

A. Podoleanu, I. Charalambous, L. Plesea, A. Dogariu, and R. Rosen, Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1277 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Podoleanu, A.

A. Podoleanu, I. Charalambous, L. Plesea, A. Dogariu, and R. Rosen, Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1277 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 113, 325 (1995).

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 112, 1584 (1994).

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178(1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rabbetts, R. B.

R. B. Rabbetts, Bennett & Rabbetts’ Clinical Visual Optics (Elsevier, 2007).

Rainer, G.

O. Findl, B. Kiss, V. Petternel, R. Menapace, M. Georgopoulos, G. Rainer, and W. Drexler, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 669 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rosen, R.

A. Podoleanu, I. Charalambous, L. Plesea, A. Dogariu, and R. Rosen, Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1277 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sacu, S.

C. Koeppl, O. Findl, R. Menapace, K. Kriechbaum, M. Wirtitsch, W. Buehl, S. Sacu, and W. Drexler, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 31, 1290 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J. S.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 113, 325 (1995).

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 112, 1584 (1994).

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178(1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178(1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 113, 325 (1995).

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 112, 1584 (1994).

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178(1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szkulmowski, M.

Szlag, D.

Wirtitsch, M.

C. Koeppl, O. Findl, R. Menapace, K. Kriechbaum, M. Wirtitsch, W. Buehl, S. Sacu, and W. Drexler, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 31, 1290 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wojtkowski, M.

Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) (2)

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 113, 325 (1995).

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 112, 1584 (1994).

J. Cataract Refractive Surg. (2)

O. Findl, B. Kiss, V. Petternel, R. Menapace, M. Georgopoulos, G. Rainer, and W. Drexler, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 669 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Koeppl, O. Findl, R. Menapace, K. Kriechbaum, M. Wirtitsch, W. Buehl, S. Sacu, and W. Drexler, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 31, 1290 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmol. Annu. (1)

D. J. Coleman and S. K. Fish, Ophthalmol. Annu. 108, 1544 (2001).

Opt. Appl. (1)

J. J. Kałusny, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, Opt. Appl. 32, 581 (2002).

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

A. Podoleanu, I. Charalambous, L. Plesea, A. Dogariu, and R. Rosen, Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1277 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178(1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

R. B. Rabbetts, Bennett & Rabbetts’ Clinical Visual Optics (Elsevier, 2007).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the scanning system: gray beams are incident nearly normal to the two corneal surfaces and anterior lens surface; black beams are incident nearly normal to the posterior lens surface. Concave mirror1 and the focusing lens are assembled by combining semicircular halves of two different optical elements represented in gray and black. Concave mirror2 is a one-piece optical element and is the same as the portion of concave mirror1 that is used for imaging the posterior surface of the lens. The enlarged view shows the paths traveled inside the eye by the scanning beams.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulated image, showing half of the eye, for (a) scan optimized for the anterior surface of the lens, (b) scan optimized for the posterior surface of the lens. ACS, anterior corneal surface; PCS, posterior corneal surface; ALS, anterior lens surface; PLS, posterior lens surface.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Images of the model eye obtained by (a) telecentric scan, (b) scan design optimized to image the anterior surface of the lens, (c) scan optimized for the posterior surface of the lens. The arrow shows the reference mirror location. The DC term and mirror images were removed manually from the images.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Distortion-corrected surface profiles; solid curves represent the raw profile and dashed curves are circular curves fitted to the raw data. The dimensions obtained from curve fitting, shown in black, are compared with actual values shown in parenthesis.

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