Abstract

The spiral plasmonic lens is capable of focusing the left-hand and right-hand circular polarizations into spatially separated plasmonic fields caused by the geometric phase effect. Its function as a circular polarization analyzer has been studied analytically and numerically in a previous Letter [Opt. Lett. 34, 3047 (2009)]. Single Archimedes’ spiral grooves with lateral sizes of approximately 4λspp (~2.8 μm) were milled into a gold thin film by using a focused ion beam. The function of such a simple spiral plasmonic lens serving as a circular polarization analyzer was experimentally characterized with two-photon fluorescence microscopy. The circular polarization extinction ratio of the two-photon fluorescent signal is estimated to be larger than 200 for a detector diameter up to 0.3λspp

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 325, 1513 (2009).
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Y. Gorodetski, N. Shitrit, I. Bretner, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Nano Lett. 9, 3016 (2009).
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L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, Nano Lett. 5, 1399 (2005).
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Chen, W.

Decker, M.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 325, 1513 (2009).
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Freymann, G.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 325, 1513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gansel, J. K.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 325, 1513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gorodetski, Y.

Y. Gorodetski, N. Shitrit, I. Bretner, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Nano Lett. 9, 3016 (2009).
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Y. Gorodetski, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 043903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hasman, E.

Y. Gorodetski, N. Shitrit, I. Bretner, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Nano Lett. 9, 3016 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Gorodetski, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 043903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hiller, J. M.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, Nano Lett. 5, 1399 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hua, J.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, Nano Lett. 5, 1399 (2005).
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Jensen, M. A.

Kimball, C. W.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, Nano Lett. 5, 1399 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kleiner, V.

Y. Gorodetski, N. Shitrit, I. Bretner, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Nano Lett. 9, 3016 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Gorodetski, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 043903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, S. W.

A. V. Krasavin, A. S. Schwanecke, N. I. Zheludev, M. Reichelt, T. Stroucken, S. W. Koch, and E. M. Wright, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 201105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krasavin, A. V.

A. V. Krasavin, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 8, S98 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krasavin, A. S. Schwanecke, N. I. Zheludev, M. Reichelt, T. Stroucken, S. W. Koch, and E. M. Wright, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 201105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lerman, G. M.

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, Nano Lett. 9, 2139 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levy, U.

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, Nano Lett. 9, 2139 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Yanai and U. Levy, Opt. Express 17, 924 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linden, S.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 325, 1513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 5, 1726 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyanishi, S.

Nelson, R. L.

S. Yang, W. Chen, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, Opt. Lett. 34, 3047 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, Nano Lett. 9, 4320 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niv, A.

Y. Gorodetski, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 043903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Ohno, T.

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pikus, Y.

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 5, 1726 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Powers, P. E.

Reichelt, M.

A. V. Krasavin, A. S. Schwanecke, N. I. Zheludev, M. Reichelt, T. Stroucken, S. W. Koch, and E. M. Wright, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 201105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rill, M. S.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 325, 1513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saile, V.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 325, 1513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarangan, A. M.

Schwanecke, A. S.

A. V. Krasavin, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 8, S98 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krasavin, A. S. Schwanecke, N. I. Zheludev, M. Reichelt, T. Stroucken, S. W. Koch, and E. M. Wright, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 201105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shitrit, N.

Y. Gorodetski, N. Shitrit, I. Bretner, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Nano Lett. 9, 3016 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srituravanich, W.

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 5, 1726 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steele, J. M.

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 5, 1726 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stroucken, T.

A. V. Krasavin, A. S. Schwanecke, N. I. Zheludev, M. Reichelt, T. Stroucken, S. W. Koch, and E. M. Wright, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 201105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 5, 1726 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thiel, M.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 325, 1513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, Nano Lett. 5, 1399 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wegener, M.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 325, 1513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Welp, U.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, Nano Lett. 5, 1399 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wright, E. M.

A. V. Krasavin, A. S. Schwanecke, N. I. Zheludev, M. Reichelt, T. Stroucken, S. W. Koch, and E. M. Wright, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 201105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z.

Yanai, A.

A. Yanai and U. Levy, Opt. Express 17, 924 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, Nano Lett. 9, 2139 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, S.

Yin, L.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, Nano Lett. 5, 1399 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhan, Q.

Zhang, X.

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 5, 1726 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheludev, N. I.

A. V. Krasavin, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 8, S98 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krasavin, A. S. Schwanecke, N. I. Zheludev, M. Reichelt, T. Stroucken, S. W. Koch, and E. M. Wright, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 201105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. V. Krasavin, A. S. Schwanecke, N. I. Zheludev, M. Reichelt, T. Stroucken, S. W. Koch, and E. M. Wright, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 201105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt.

A. V. Krasavin, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 8, S98 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

Y. Gorodetski, N. Shitrit, I. Bretner, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Nano Lett. 9, 3016 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 5, 1726 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, Nano Lett. 5, 1399 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, Nano Lett. 9, 2139 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, Nano Lett. 9, 4320 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

S. Yang, P. E. Powers, and Q. Zhan, Opt. Commun. 282, 4657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

Y. Gorodetski, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 043903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 325, 1513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SEM image of a 10×10 spiral plasmonic lens array made of LHS structures.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for far-field two-photon fluoresence microscopy measurement of SPP field intensity distribution. The handedness of circularly polarized laser beam obtained after the linear polarizer and the QWP can be switched by simply rotating the QWP by 90°. The beam is slightly focused onto the sample from the glass substrate side at normal incidence. A droplet of blue fluorescing polymer nanospheres solution is sandwiched between the LHS array sample and a microscope cover glass. The surface with the LHS array is adjusted to the focal plane of the objective lens installed on an inverted microscope. A low-pass filter after the objective lens filters out the laser line. The blue TPF signals are then collected by a high resolution CCD camera.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

TPF microscopy images of LHS array with (a) RHC polarized illumination and (b) LHC polarized illumination. The bright center and the dark center can be used to differentiate RHC and LHC polarized illumination.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Line scans across the center of one individual spiral (indicated by the faint white dashed lines in Fig. 3). The black dashed line indicates the estimated noise level.

Equations (1)

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r = r 0 Λ 2 π ϕ ,

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