Abstract

We investigate the surface electromagnetic characteristics of a photoinduced periodical structure using the attenuated total reflection (ATR) technique in the terahertz frequency region. A wire grating structure is generated at the surface of a silicon prism by irradiation with a spatially modulated, ultrafast pulsed laser. A characteristic minimum due to the excitation of surface waves is observed in the ATR spectrum. The depth profile of the photoinduced carrier layer is also studied. We confirm that the photoinduced structure has metallic properties. This fabrication technique will be developed as a simple method to create “active” structures.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. E. Yablonovitch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Science 292, 77(2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, Science 305, 847 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, J. Opt. A 7, S97 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. P. Hibbins, B. R. Evans, and J. R. Sambles, Science 308, 670 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. P. Hibbins, E. Hendry, M. J. Lockyear, and J. R. Sambles, Opt. Express 16, 20441 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, Science 312, 1780 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, Nature 444, 597 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. I. H. Libon, S. Baumgärtner, M. Hempel, N. E. Hecker, J. Feldmann, M. Koch, and P. Dawson, Appl Phys. Lett. 76, 2821 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Gallot, S. P. Jamison, R. W. McGowan, and D. Grischkowsky, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 851 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. G. Cooke and P. U. Jepsen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241118(2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Otto, Z. Phys. 216, 398 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, Z. Naturforsch. 23a, 2135(1968).
  15. T. Okada, M. Nagai, and K. Tanaka, Opt. Express 16, 5633(2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids III(Academic Press, 1998).
  17. C. M. Li, T. Sjodin, and H. L. Dai, Phys. Rev. B 56, 15252(1997).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2007).
  19. R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, Nature 414, 286 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. D. M. Riffe, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1092 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2009

D. G. Cooke and P. U. Jepsen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241118(2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2006

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, Science 312, 1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, Nature 444, 597 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, J. Opt. A 7, S97 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Hibbins, B. R. Evans, and J. R. Sambles, Science 308, 670 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, Science 305, 847 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

2001

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, Nature 414, 286 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Science 292, 77(2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

I. H. Libon, S. Baumgärtner, M. Hempel, N. E. Hecker, J. Feldmann, M. Koch, and P. Dawson, Appl Phys. Lett. 76, 2821 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Gallot, S. P. Jamison, R. W. McGowan, and D. Grischkowsky, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 851 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

C. M. Li, T. Sjodin, and H. L. Dai, Phys. Rev. B 56, 15252(1997).
[CrossRef]

1987

E. Yablonovitch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1968

A. Otto, Z. Phys. 216, 398 (1968).
[CrossRef]

E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, Z. Naturforsch. 23a, 2135(1968).

Abstreiter, G.

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, Nature 414, 286 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Averitt, R. D.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, Nature 444, 597 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumgärtner, S.

I. H. Libon, S. Baumgärtner, M. Hempel, N. E. Hecker, J. Feldmann, M. Koch, and P. Dawson, Appl Phys. Lett. 76, 2821 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bichler, M.

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, Nature 414, 286 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brodschelm, A.

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, Nature 414, 286 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H. T.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, Nature 444, 597 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cooke, D. G.

D. G. Cooke and P. U. Jepsen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241118(2009).
[CrossRef]

Dai, H. L.

C. M. Li, T. Sjodin, and H. L. Dai, Phys. Rev. B 56, 15252(1997).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, P.

I. H. Libon, S. Baumgärtner, M. Hempel, N. E. Hecker, J. Feldmann, M. Koch, and P. Dawson, Appl Phys. Lett. 76, 2821 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Evans, B. R.

A. P. Hibbins, B. R. Evans, and J. R. Sambles, Science 308, 670 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feldmann, J.

I. H. Libon, S. Baumgärtner, M. Hempel, N. E. Hecker, J. Feldmann, M. Koch, and P. Dawson, Appl Phys. Lett. 76, 2821 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gallot, G.

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, J. Opt. A 7, S97 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, Science 305, 847 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gossard, A. C.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, Nature 444, 597 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grischkowsky, D.

Hecker, N. E.

I. H. Libon, S. Baumgärtner, M. Hempel, N. E. Hecker, J. Feldmann, M. Koch, and P. Dawson, Appl Phys. Lett. 76, 2821 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hempel, M.

I. H. Libon, S. Baumgärtner, M. Hempel, N. E. Hecker, J. Feldmann, M. Koch, and P. Dawson, Appl Phys. Lett. 76, 2821 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hendry, E.

Hibbins, A. P.

Highstrete, C.

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, R.

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, Nature 414, 286 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jamison, S. P.

Jepsen, P. U.

D. G. Cooke and P. U. Jepsen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241118(2009).
[CrossRef]

Koch, M.

I. H. Libon, S. Baumgärtner, M. Hempel, N. E. Hecker, J. Feldmann, M. Koch, and P. Dawson, Appl Phys. Lett. 76, 2821 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kretschmann, E.

E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, Z. Naturforsch. 23a, 2135(1968).

Lee, M.

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitenstorfer, A.

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, Nature 414, 286 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, C. M.

C. M. Li, T. Sjodin, and H. L. Dai, Phys. Rev. B 56, 15252(1997).
[CrossRef]

Libon, I. H.

I. H. Libon, S. Baumgärtner, M. Hempel, N. E. Hecker, J. Feldmann, M. Koch, and P. Dawson, Appl Phys. Lett. 76, 2821 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lockyear, M. J.

Maier, S. A.

S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2007).

Martín-Moreno, L.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, J. Opt. A 7, S97 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, Science 305, 847 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGowan, R. W.

Nagai, M.

Okada, T.

Otto, A.

A. Otto, Z. Phys. 216, 398 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Padilla, W. J.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, Nature 444, 597 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids III(Academic Press, 1998).

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, Science 312, 1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, J. Opt. A 7, S97 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, Science 305, 847 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raether, H.

E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, Z. Naturforsch. 23a, 2135(1968).

Riffe, D. M.

Sambles, J. R.

Schultz, S.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Science 292, 77(2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schurig, D.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, Science 312, 1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Science 292, 77(2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sjodin, T.

C. M. Li, T. Sjodin, and H. L. Dai, Phys. Rev. B 56, 15252(1997).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, Science 312, 1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Science 292, 77(2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, K.

Tauser, F.

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, Nature 414, 286 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, A.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, Nature 444, 597 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, A. J.

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yablonovitch, E.

E. Yablonovitch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zide, J. M. O.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, Nature 444, 597 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl Phys. Lett.

I. H. Libon, S. Baumgärtner, M. Hempel, N. E. Hecker, J. Feldmann, M. Koch, and P. Dawson, Appl Phys. Lett. 76, 2821 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. G. Cooke and P. U. Jepsen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241118(2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, J. Opt. A 7, S97 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nature

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, Nature 444, 597 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, Nature 414, 286 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. B

C. M. Li, T. Sjodin, and H. L. Dai, Phys. Rev. B 56, 15252(1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Yablonovitch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Science 292, 77(2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, Science 305, 847 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Hibbins, B. R. Evans, and J. R. Sambles, Science 308, 670 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, Science 312, 1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Naturforsch.

E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, Z. Naturforsch. 23a, 2135(1968).

Z. Phys.

A. Otto, Z. Phys. 216, 398 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Other

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids III(Academic Press, 1998).

S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2007).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

System for fabricating and characterizing a two-dimensional structure on an Si ATR prism. The p- polarized THz pulses are generated by optical rectification and detected by the electro-optical sampling technique. The dotted circle depicts a schematic cross section through part of the Si prism.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

THz-ATR electric field amplitude as a function of frequency for the WG structure (solid curve), a uniformly irradiated film (dashed curve), and a sample exposed to no pump pulse irradiation (dashed-dotted curve).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Evolution of THz-TD transient peaks in the photoinduced carrier layer for several values of pump photon density N pump . The spectra have been normalized to the peak value. (b) Explanation for the displacement of the optical path of the THz pulses. The THz pulses pass along the solid arrow due to a change in the position of the reflection plane. This leads to a shortening of the THz pulse path length.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Depth profile of the photoinduced film structure. The experimentally determined position of the reflection plane is represented by closed circles. The solid curve represents the calculated position for a plasma frequency of 0.8 THz .

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

f SW = ω SW 2 π c a ( ε sin θ + 1 ) ,
z reflection ( N pump , ω p ) = D p ln e 2 N pump S D p μ ε ε 0 ω p 2 , ( N pump 0 ) ,

Metrics