Abstract

We present a surface-mountable miniature Fabry–Perot (FP) pressure sensor that utilizes the total internal reflection at a 45° angled fiber end face to steer the optical axis by 90°. By using the fiber as a waveguide, as well as a natural mask in photolithography, an FP cavity is constructed on the sidewall of the fiber. A polymer–metal composite diaphragm is employed as the pressure transducer. The sensor exhibits a good linearity over the pressure range of 1.914.2psi, with a sensitivity of 0.009μm/psi and a hysteresis of 2.7%. This sensor is expected to impact many fronts that require reliable static pressure measurements of fluids.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

S. Nesson, M. Yu, X. M. Zhang, and A. H. Hsieh, J Biomed. Opt. 13, 044040 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

Y. Liu, L. Alexander, G. Wang, P. Ashish, and M. Yu, Proc. SPIE 6770, 67700Y (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

2005 (2)

M.-S. Kim, K.-W. Jo, and J.-H. Lee, Appl. Opt. 44, 3985(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Totsu, Y. Haga, and M. Esashi, J. Micromech. Microeng. 15, 71 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

M. J. Gander, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, R. L. Reuben, J. D. C. Jones, R. Stevens, K. S. Chana, S. J. Anderson, and T. V. Jones, IEEE Sens. J. 3, 102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Qi, G. R. Pickrell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

D. C. Abeysinghe, S. Dasgupta, J. T. Boyd, and H. E. Jackson, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 993 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

W. N. MacPherson, J. M. Kilpatrick, J. S. Barton, and J. D. C. Jones, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 1868 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

E. S. Olson, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103, 3445 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abeysinghe, D. C.

D. C. Abeysinghe, S. Dasgupta, J. T. Boyd, and H. E. Jackson, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 993 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, L.

Y. Liu, L. Alexander, G. Wang, P. Ashish, and M. Yu, Proc. SPIE 6770, 67700Y (2007).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, S. J.

M. J. Gander, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, R. L. Reuben, J. D. C. Jones, R. Stevens, K. S. Chana, S. J. Anderson, and T. V. Jones, IEEE Sens. J. 3, 102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ashish, P.

Y. Liu, L. Alexander, G. Wang, P. Ashish, and M. Yu, Proc. SPIE 6770, 67700Y (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barton, J. S.

S. Watson, M. J. Gander, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, J. D. C. Jones, T. Klotzbuecher, T. Braune, J. Ott, and F. Schmitz, Appl. Opt. 45, 5590 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Gander, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, R. L. Reuben, J. D. C. Jones, R. Stevens, K. S. Chana, S. J. Anderson, and T. V. Jones, IEEE Sens. J. 3, 102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. N. MacPherson, J. M. Kilpatrick, J. S. Barton, and J. D. C. Jones, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 1868 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, J. T.

D. C. Abeysinghe, S. Dasgupta, J. T. Boyd, and H. E. Jackson, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 993 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Braune, T.

Chan, I. H.

R. Melamud, A. A. Davenport, G. C. Hill, I. H. Chan, F. Declerq, P. G. Hartwell, and B. L. Pruitt, in Proceedings of 18th International Conference on Microelectromechanical Systems (2005), pp. 810–813.

Chana, K. S.

M. J. Gander, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, R. L. Reuben, J. D. C. Jones, R. Stevens, K. S. Chana, S. J. Anderson, and T. V. Jones, IEEE Sens. J. 3, 102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, K. L.

Dasgupta, S.

D. C. Abeysinghe, S. Dasgupta, J. T. Boyd, and H. E. Jackson, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 993 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Davenport, A. A.

R. Melamud, A. A. Davenport, G. C. Hill, I. H. Chan, F. Declerq, P. G. Hartwell, and B. L. Pruitt, in Proceedings of 18th International Conference on Microelectromechanical Systems (2005), pp. 810–813.

Declerq, F.

R. Melamud, A. A. Davenport, G. C. Hill, I. H. Chan, F. Declerq, P. G. Hartwell, and B. L. Pruitt, in Proceedings of 18th International Conference on Microelectromechanical Systems (2005), pp. 810–813.

Duan, Y.

B. Qi, G. R. Pickrell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Esashi, M.

K. Totsu, Y. Haga, and M. Esashi, J. Micromech. Microeng. 15, 71 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gander, M. J.

S. Watson, M. J. Gander, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, J. D. C. Jones, T. Klotzbuecher, T. Braune, J. Ott, and F. Schmitz, Appl. Opt. 45, 5590 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Gander, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, R. L. Reuben, J. D. C. Jones, R. Stevens, K. S. Chana, S. J. Anderson, and T. V. Jones, IEEE Sens. J. 3, 102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grattan, K. T. V.

K. T. V. Grattan and B. T. Meggitt, Optical Fiber Sensor Technology (Chapman & Hall, 1995).

Haga, Y.

K. Totsu, Y. Haga, and M. Esashi, J. Micromech. Microeng. 15, 71 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hartwell, P. G.

R. Melamud, A. A. Davenport, G. C. Hill, I. H. Chan, F. Declerq, P. G. Hartwell, and B. L. Pruitt, in Proceedings of 18th International Conference on Microelectromechanical Systems (2005), pp. 810–813.

Hill, G. C.

R. Melamud, A. A. Davenport, G. C. Hill, I. H. Chan, F. Declerq, P. G. Hartwell, and B. L. Pruitt, in Proceedings of 18th International Conference on Microelectromechanical Systems (2005), pp. 810–813.

Hsieh, A. H.

S. Nesson, M. Yu, X. M. Zhang, and A. H. Hsieh, J Biomed. Opt. 13, 044040 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Z.

B. Qi, G. R. Pickrell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huo, W.

B. Qi, G. R. Pickrell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, H. E.

D. C. Abeysinghe, S. Dasgupta, J. T. Boyd, and H. E. Jackson, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 993 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jo, K.-W.

Jones, J. D. C.

S. Watson, M. J. Gander, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, J. D. C. Jones, T. Klotzbuecher, T. Braune, J. Ott, and F. Schmitz, Appl. Opt. 45, 5590 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Gander, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, R. L. Reuben, J. D. C. Jones, R. Stevens, K. S. Chana, S. J. Anderson, and T. V. Jones, IEEE Sens. J. 3, 102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. N. MacPherson, J. M. Kilpatrick, J. S. Barton, and J. D. C. Jones, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 1868 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jones, T. V.

M. J. Gander, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, R. L. Reuben, J. D. C. Jones, R. Stevens, K. S. Chana, S. J. Anderson, and T. V. Jones, IEEE Sens. J. 3, 102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kilpatrick, J. M.

W. N. MacPherson, J. M. Kilpatrick, J. S. Barton, and J. D. C. Jones, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 1868 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M.-S.

Klotzbuecher, T.

Lee, J.-H.

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, L. Alexander, G. Wang, P. Ashish, and M. Yu, Proc. SPIE 6770, 67700Y (2007).
[CrossRef]

MacPherson, W. N.

S. Watson, M. J. Gander, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, J. D. C. Jones, T. Klotzbuecher, T. Braune, J. Ott, and F. Schmitz, Appl. Opt. 45, 5590 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Gander, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, R. L. Reuben, J. D. C. Jones, R. Stevens, K. S. Chana, S. J. Anderson, and T. V. Jones, IEEE Sens. J. 3, 102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. N. MacPherson, J. M. Kilpatrick, J. S. Barton, and J. D. C. Jones, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 1868 (1999).
[CrossRef]

May, R. G.

B. Qi, G. R. Pickrell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meggitt, B. T.

K. T. V. Grattan and B. T. Meggitt, Optical Fiber Sensor Technology (Chapman & Hall, 1995).

Melamud, R.

R. Melamud, A. A. Davenport, G. C. Hill, I. H. Chan, F. Declerq, P. G. Hartwell, and B. L. Pruitt, in Proceedings of 18th International Conference on Microelectromechanical Systems (2005), pp. 810–813.

Nesson, S.

S. Nesson, M. Yu, X. M. Zhang, and A. H. Hsieh, J Biomed. Opt. 13, 044040 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olson, E. S.

E. S. Olson, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103, 3445 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ott, J.

Peng, W.

B. Qi, G. R. Pickrell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pickrell, G. R.

B. Qi, G. R. Pickrell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pruitt, B. L.

R. Melamud, A. A. Davenport, G. C. Hill, I. H. Chan, F. Declerq, P. G. Hartwell, and B. L. Pruitt, in Proceedings of 18th International Conference on Microelectromechanical Systems (2005), pp. 810–813.

Qi, B.

B. Qi, G. R. Pickrell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rao, Y. J.

Y. J. Rao, Opt. Fiber Technol. 12, 227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reuben, R. L.

M. J. Gander, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, R. L. Reuben, J. D. C. Jones, R. Stevens, K. S. Chana, S. J. Anderson, and T. V. Jones, IEEE Sens. J. 3, 102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schmitz, F.

Stevens, R.

M. J. Gander, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, R. L. Reuben, J. D. C. Jones, R. Stevens, K. S. Chana, S. J. Anderson, and T. V. Jones, IEEE Sens. J. 3, 102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Streeter, V. L.

V. L. Streeter and E. B. Wylie, Fluid Mechanics, 8th ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1985).

Totsu, K.

K. Totsu, Y. Haga, and M. Esashi, J. Micromech. Microeng. 15, 71 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, A.

X. W. Wang, J. C. Xu, Y. Z. Zhu, K. L. Cooper, and A. Wang, Opt. Lett. 31, 885 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Qi, G. R. Pickrell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G.

Y. Liu, L. Alexander, G. Wang, P. Ashish, and M. Yu, Proc. SPIE 6770, 67700Y (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. W.

Watson, S.

Wylie, E. B.

V. L. Streeter and E. B. Wylie, Fluid Mechanics, 8th ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1985).

Xiao, H.

B. Qi, G. R. Pickrell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

B. Qi, G. R. Pickrell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J. C.

Yu, M.

S. Nesson, M. Yu, X. M. Zhang, and A. H. Hsieh, J Biomed. Opt. 13, 044040 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, L. Alexander, G. Wang, P. Ashish, and M. Yu, Proc. SPIE 6770, 67700Y (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, P.

B. Qi, G. R. Pickrell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. M.

S. Nesson, M. Yu, X. M. Zhang, and A. H. Hsieh, J Biomed. Opt. 13, 044040 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, Y. Z.

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

D. C. Abeysinghe, S. Dasgupta, J. T. Boyd, and H. E. Jackson, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 993 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

M. J. Gander, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, R. L. Reuben, J. D. C. Jones, R. Stevens, K. S. Chana, S. J. Anderson, and T. V. Jones, IEEE Sens. J. 3, 102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J Biomed. Opt. (1)

S. Nesson, M. Yu, X. M. Zhang, and A. H. Hsieh, J Biomed. Opt. 13, 044040 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (1)

E. S. Olson, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103, 3445 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

K. Totsu, Y. Haga, and M. Esashi, J. Micromech. Microeng. 15, 71 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

B. Qi, G. R. Pickrell, J. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

Y. J. Rao, Opt. Fiber Technol. 12, 227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

Y. Liu, L. Alexander, G. Wang, P. Ashish, and M. Yu, Proc. SPIE 6770, 67700Y (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

W. N. MacPherson, J. M. Kilpatrick, J. S. Barton, and J. D. C. Jones, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 1868 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

V. L. Streeter and E. B. Wylie, Fluid Mechanics, 8th ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1985).

R. Melamud, A. A. Davenport, G. C. Hill, I. H. Chan, F. Declerq, P. G. Hartwell, and B. L. Pruitt, in Proceedings of 18th International Conference on Microelectromechanical Systems (2005), pp. 810–813.

K. T. V. Grattan and B. T. Meggitt, Optical Fiber Sensor Technology (Chapman & Hall, 1995).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Configurations of miniature fiber-optic pressure sensors: (a) coaxial configuration and (b) cross-axial configuration.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fabrication process flow of the surface-mountable sensor: (a) polishing of the 45 ° angled fiber end face and deposition of the metal layer, (b) exposure of the photoresist housing with a fiber-coupled UV light, (c) development of the photoresist, and (d) covering of the polymer diaphragm and deposition of the reflective layer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scanning electron micrographs of (a) optical cavity before covering the diaphragm and (b) the close-up of the composite diaphragm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Sensor cavity length as a function of the external pressure.

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