Abstract

We study experimentally the interaction of spatial optical solitons with curved dielectric surfaces in unbiased nematic liquid crystals. We demonstrate that this interaction depends on the curvature of the surface and the walk-off, and it can be employed for efficient routing and control of the soliton trajectories. We also observe a large-angle total internal reflection of the soliton beam from an interface between liquid crystal and air.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. Yu. S. Kivshar and G. P. Agrawal, Optical Solitons: From Fibers to Photonic Crystals (Academic, 2003).
  2. I. C. Khoo, Liquid crystals: Physical Properties and Nonlinear Optical Phenomena (Wiley, 1995).
  3. G. Assanto and M. Karpierz, Liq. Cryst. 36, 1161 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. de Luca, and C. Umeton, Nature 432, 733 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Piccardi, U. Bortolozzo, S. Residori, and G. Assanto, Opt. Lett. 34, 737 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Peccianti and G. Assanto, Opt. Lett. 30, 2290 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K. Jaworowicz, K. A. Brzdakiewicz, M. Karpierz, and M. Sierakowski, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 453, 301 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Piccardi, A. Alberucci, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 061105 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Peccianti, K. A. Brzdiakiewicz, and G. Assanto, Opt. Lett. 27, 1460 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. V. Izdebskaya, V. Shvedov, A. Desyatnikov, W. Krolikowski, G. Assanto, and Y. S. Kivshar, J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 5, 10008 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Henninot, J. Blach, and M. Warenghem, J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 9, 20 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Ya. Izdebskaya, V. Shvedov, A. S. Desyatnikov, W. Krolikowski, M. Belic, G. Assanto, and Yu. S. Kivshar, Opt. Express 18, 3258 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. Peccianti, A. Dyadyusha, M. Kaczmarek, and G. Assanto, Nature Phys. 2, 737 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, and M. Haelterman, J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 214 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Warenghem, J. F. Blach, and J. F. Henninot, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 454, 297 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Pasquazi, A. Alberucci, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261104 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 1287 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Piccardi, G. Assanto, L. Lucchetti, and F. Simoni, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 171104 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Alberucci, A. Piccardi, U. Bortolozzo, S. Residori, and G. Assanto, Opt. Lett. 35, 390 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. A. Alberucci, M. Pecciani, and G. Assanto, Opt. Lett. 32, 2795 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. A. Alberucci, G. Assanto, D. Buccoliero, A. S. Desyatnikov, T. R. Marchant, and N. F. Smyth, Phys. Rev. A 79, 043816(2009).
    [CrossRef]

2010

A. Piccardi, A. Alberucci, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 061105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. V. Izdebskaya, V. Shvedov, A. Desyatnikov, W. Krolikowski, G. Assanto, and Y. S. Kivshar, J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 5, 10008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ya. Izdebskaya, V. Shvedov, A. S. Desyatnikov, W. Krolikowski, M. Belic, G. Assanto, and Yu. S. Kivshar, Opt. Express 18, 3258 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Alberucci, A. Piccardi, U. Bortolozzo, S. Residori, and G. Assanto, Opt. Lett. 35, 390 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

G. Assanto and M. Karpierz, Liq. Cryst. 36, 1161 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Piccardi, U. Bortolozzo, S. Residori, and G. Assanto, Opt. Lett. 34, 737 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Alberucci, G. Assanto, D. Buccoliero, A. S. Desyatnikov, T. R. Marchant, and N. F. Smyth, Phys. Rev. A 79, 043816(2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

A. Piccardi, G. Assanto, L. Lucchetti, and F. Simoni, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 171104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

J. Henninot, J. Blach, and M. Warenghem, J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 9, 20 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Alberucci, M. Pecciani, and G. Assanto, Opt. Lett. 32, 2795 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

K. Jaworowicz, K. A. Brzdakiewicz, M. Karpierz, and M. Sierakowski, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 453, 301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 1287 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, A. Dyadyusha, M. Kaczmarek, and G. Assanto, Nature Phys. 2, 737 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, and M. Haelterman, J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 214 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Warenghem, J. F. Blach, and J. F. Henninot, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 454, 297 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

A. Pasquazi, A. Alberucci, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti and G. Assanto, Opt. Lett. 30, 2290 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. de Luca, and C. Umeton, Nature 432, 733 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

Izdebskaya, Y. V.

Y. V. Izdebskaya, V. Shvedov, A. Desyatnikov, W. Krolikowski, G. Assanto, and Y. S. Kivshar, J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 5, 10008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

Yu. S. Kivshar and G. P. Agrawal, Optical Solitons: From Fibers to Photonic Crystals (Academic, 2003).

Alberucci, A.

A. Piccardi, A. Alberucci, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 061105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Alberucci, A. Piccardi, U. Bortolozzo, S. Residori, and G. Assanto, Opt. Lett. 35, 390 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Alberucci, G. Assanto, D. Buccoliero, A. S. Desyatnikov, T. R. Marchant, and N. F. Smyth, Phys. Rev. A 79, 043816(2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Alberucci, M. Pecciani, and G. Assanto, Opt. Lett. 32, 2795 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pasquazi, A. Alberucci, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Assanto, G.

Ya. Izdebskaya, V. Shvedov, A. S. Desyatnikov, W. Krolikowski, M. Belic, G. Assanto, and Yu. S. Kivshar, Opt. Express 18, 3258 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Alberucci, A. Piccardi, U. Bortolozzo, S. Residori, and G. Assanto, Opt. Lett. 35, 390 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Piccardi, A. Alberucci, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 061105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. V. Izdebskaya, V. Shvedov, A. Desyatnikov, W. Krolikowski, G. Assanto, and Y. S. Kivshar, J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 5, 10008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Assanto and M. Karpierz, Liq. Cryst. 36, 1161 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Piccardi, U. Bortolozzo, S. Residori, and G. Assanto, Opt. Lett. 34, 737 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Alberucci, G. Assanto, D. Buccoliero, A. S. Desyatnikov, T. R. Marchant, and N. F. Smyth, Phys. Rev. A 79, 043816(2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Piccardi, G. Assanto, L. Lucchetti, and F. Simoni, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 171104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Alberucci, M. Pecciani, and G. Assanto, Opt. Lett. 32, 2795 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 1287 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, A. Dyadyusha, M. Kaczmarek, and G. Assanto, Nature Phys. 2, 737 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Pasquazi, A. Alberucci, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti and G. Assanto, Opt. Lett. 30, 2290 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. de Luca, and C. Umeton, Nature 432, 733 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peccianti, K. A. Brzdiakiewicz, and G. Assanto, Opt. Lett. 27, 1460 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beeckman, J.

J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, and M. Haelterman, J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 214 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Belic, M.

Blach, J.

J. Henninot, J. Blach, and M. Warenghem, J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 9, 20 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Blach, J. F.

M. Warenghem, J. F. Blach, and J. F. Henninot, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 454, 297 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bortolozzo, U.

Brzdakiewicz, K. A.

K. Jaworowicz, K. A. Brzdakiewicz, M. Karpierz, and M. Sierakowski, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 453, 301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brzdiakiewicz, K. A.

Buccoliero, D.

A. Alberucci, G. Assanto, D. Buccoliero, A. S. Desyatnikov, T. R. Marchant, and N. F. Smyth, Phys. Rev. A 79, 043816(2009).
[CrossRef]

Conti, C.

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. de Luca, and C. Umeton, Nature 432, 733 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Luca, A.

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. de Luca, and C. Umeton, Nature 432, 733 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Desyatnikov, A.

Y. V. Izdebskaya, V. Shvedov, A. Desyatnikov, W. Krolikowski, G. Assanto, and Y. S. Kivshar, J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 5, 10008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Desyatnikov, A. S.

Ya. Izdebskaya, V. Shvedov, A. S. Desyatnikov, W. Krolikowski, M. Belic, G. Assanto, and Yu. S. Kivshar, Opt. Express 18, 3258 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Alberucci, G. Assanto, D. Buccoliero, A. S. Desyatnikov, T. R. Marchant, and N. F. Smyth, Phys. Rev. A 79, 043816(2009).
[CrossRef]

Dyadyusha, A.

M. Peccianti, A. Dyadyusha, M. Kaczmarek, and G. Assanto, Nature Phys. 2, 737 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Haelterman, M.

J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, and M. Haelterman, J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 214 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Henninot, J.

J. Henninot, J. Blach, and M. Warenghem, J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 9, 20 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Henninot, J. F.

M. Warenghem, J. F. Blach, and J. F. Henninot, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 454, 297 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Izdebskaya, Ya.

Jaworowicz, K.

K. Jaworowicz, K. A. Brzdakiewicz, M. Karpierz, and M. Sierakowski, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 453, 301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kaczmarek, M.

M. Peccianti, A. Dyadyusha, M. Kaczmarek, and G. Assanto, Nature Phys. 2, 737 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Karpierz, M.

G. Assanto and M. Karpierz, Liq. Cryst. 36, 1161 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Jaworowicz, K. A. Brzdakiewicz, M. Karpierz, and M. Sierakowski, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 453, 301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Khoo, I. C.

I. C. Khoo, Liquid crystals: Physical Properties and Nonlinear Optical Phenomena (Wiley, 1995).

Kivshar, Y. S.

Y. V. Izdebskaya, V. Shvedov, A. Desyatnikov, W. Krolikowski, G. Assanto, and Y. S. Kivshar, J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 5, 10008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kivshar, Yu. S.

Ya. Izdebskaya, V. Shvedov, A. S. Desyatnikov, W. Krolikowski, M. Belic, G. Assanto, and Yu. S. Kivshar, Opt. Express 18, 3258 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu. S. Kivshar and G. P. Agrawal, Optical Solitons: From Fibers to Photonic Crystals (Academic, 2003).

Krolikowski, W.

Y. V. Izdebskaya, V. Shvedov, A. Desyatnikov, W. Krolikowski, G. Assanto, and Y. S. Kivshar, J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 5, 10008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ya. Izdebskaya, V. Shvedov, A. S. Desyatnikov, W. Krolikowski, M. Belic, G. Assanto, and Yu. S. Kivshar, Opt. Express 18, 3258 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lucchetti, L.

A. Piccardi, G. Assanto, L. Lucchetti, and F. Simoni, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 171104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Marchant, T. R.

A. Alberucci, G. Assanto, D. Buccoliero, A. S. Desyatnikov, T. R. Marchant, and N. F. Smyth, Phys. Rev. A 79, 043816(2009).
[CrossRef]

Neyts, K.

J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, and M. Haelterman, J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 214 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pasquazi, A.

A. Pasquazi, A. Alberucci, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pecciani, M.

Peccianti, M.

M. Peccianti, A. Dyadyusha, M. Kaczmarek, and G. Assanto, Nature Phys. 2, 737 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 1287 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Pasquazi, A. Alberucci, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti and G. Assanto, Opt. Lett. 30, 2290 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. de Luca, and C. Umeton, Nature 432, 733 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peccianti, K. A. Brzdiakiewicz, and G. Assanto, Opt. Lett. 27, 1460 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Piccardi, A.

A. Piccardi, A. Alberucci, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 061105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Alberucci, A. Piccardi, U. Bortolozzo, S. Residori, and G. Assanto, Opt. Lett. 35, 390 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Piccardi, U. Bortolozzo, S. Residori, and G. Assanto, Opt. Lett. 34, 737 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Piccardi, G. Assanto, L. Lucchetti, and F. Simoni, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 171104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Residori, S.

Serak, S.

S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 1287 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shvedov, V.

Y. V. Izdebskaya, V. Shvedov, A. Desyatnikov, W. Krolikowski, G. Assanto, and Y. S. Kivshar, J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 5, 10008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ya. Izdebskaya, V. Shvedov, A. S. Desyatnikov, W. Krolikowski, M. Belic, G. Assanto, and Yu. S. Kivshar, Opt. Express 18, 3258 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sierakowski, M.

K. Jaworowicz, K. A. Brzdakiewicz, M. Karpierz, and M. Sierakowski, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 453, 301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Simoni, F.

A. Piccardi, G. Assanto, L. Lucchetti, and F. Simoni, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 171104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smyth, N. F.

A. Alberucci, G. Assanto, D. Buccoliero, A. S. Desyatnikov, T. R. Marchant, and N. F. Smyth, Phys. Rev. A 79, 043816(2009).
[CrossRef]

Tabiryan, N.

S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 1287 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Umeton, C.

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. de Luca, and C. Umeton, Nature 432, 733 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Warenghem, M.

J. Henninot, J. Blach, and M. Warenghem, J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 9, 20 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Warenghem, J. F. Blach, and J. F. Henninot, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 454, 297 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Piccardi, A. Alberucci, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 061105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Pasquazi, A. Alberucci, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Piccardi, G. Assanto, L. Lucchetti, and F. Simoni, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 171104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.

S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 1287 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ.

Y. V. Izdebskaya, V. Shvedov, A. Desyatnikov, W. Krolikowski, G. Assanto, and Y. S. Kivshar, J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 5, 10008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt.

J. Henninot, J. Blach, and M. Warenghem, J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 9, 20 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, and M. Haelterman, J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 214 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liq. Cryst.

G. Assanto and M. Karpierz, Liq. Cryst. 36, 1161 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.

M. Warenghem, J. F. Blach, and J. F. Henninot, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 454, 297 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Jaworowicz, K. A. Brzdakiewicz, M. Karpierz, and M. Sierakowski, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 453, 301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. de Luca, and C. Umeton, Nature 432, 733 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Phys.

M. Peccianti, A. Dyadyusha, M. Kaczmarek, and G. Assanto, Nature Phys. 2, 737 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

A. Alberucci, G. Assanto, D. Buccoliero, A. S. Desyatnikov, T. R. Marchant, and N. F. Smyth, Phys. Rev. A 79, 043816(2009).
[CrossRef]

Other

Yu. S. Kivshar and G. P. Agrawal, Optical Solitons: From Fibers to Photonic Crystals (Academic, 2003).

I. C. Khoo, Liquid crystals: Physical Properties and Nonlinear Optical Phenomena (Wiley, 1995).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experimental setup: Ls, cw laser; MO, micro-objective; λ / 2 , half-wavelength plate; CCD, camera. (b) Top view of a planar NLC cell with injected air bubble and prealigned molecular director n.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental results of the nematicon interaction with curved dielectric surfaces. For better comparison, we show the images of ordinary polarized linear beams in (a), (c), and (e), and the unperturbed nematicon in (b). The soliton–surface interaction in (d) and (f) bends soliton trajectories on either side of the curved NLC–air interfaces, the later visible in (b) and (c) as curved contours. The dashed lines in (c)–(f) correspond to the trajectory of the unperturbed soliton in (b).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Angular deviation of the soliton trajectory α for two different radii of the air bubble, R = 529 μm (squares) and R = 270 μm (circles). Results are recorded for two cases when the soliton approaches the air bubble from (a) top and (b) bottom. Solid lines: exponential decay fit, α exp ( d / D ) .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Angle Θ (color coded) of the director n (black dashes) and (b) corresponding distribution of the refractive index n for planar anchoring of molecules on the NLC–air cylindrical interface.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Total internal reflection of a nematicon from a curved dielectric surface (dashed curve, R = 270 μm ), for two impact distances in (a) and (b).

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