Abstract

We report the experimental generation of two-soliton molecules in an all-polarization-maintaining ytterbium-doped fiber laser operating in the normal dispersion regime. These molecules exhibit an independently evolving phase and are characterized by a regular spectral modulation pattern with a modulation depth of 80% measured as an averaged value. Moreover, the numerical modeling confirms that the limited modulation depth of the spectrum is caused by the evolution of the phase difference between the pulses.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. N. N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4047 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Zavyalov, R. Iliew, O. Egorov, and F. Lederer, Phys. Rev. A 79, 053841 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. M. Soto-Crespo, Ph. Grelu, N. N. Akhmediev, and N. Devine, Phys. Rev. E 75, 016613 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. M. Soto-Crespo and N. N. Akhmediev, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 674 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. J. Lederer, B. Luther-Davies, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, N. N. Akhmediev, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 895 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Zavyalov, R. Iliew, O. Egorov, and F. Lederer, Phys. Rev. A 80, 043829 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Zavyalov, R. Iliew, O. Egorov, and F. Lederer, Opt. Lett. 34, 3827 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, C. Lu, W. S. Man, and H. Y. Tam, Phys. Rev. A 66, 033806 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Ph. Grelu, F. Belhache, F. Gutty, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, Opt. Lett. 27, 966 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Hideur, B. Ortaç, T. Chartier, M. Brunel, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, Opt. Commun. 225, 71 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Grapinet and P. Grelu, Opt. Lett. 31, 2115 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. T. Schreiber, B. Ortaç, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, Opt. Express 15, 8252 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C. K. Nielsen, B. Ortaç, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, R. Hohmuth, W. Richter, and A. Tünnermann, Opt. Express 13, 9346 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. B. Ortaç, A. Hideur, M. Brunel, C. Chédot, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, and F. Ö. Ilday, Opt. Express 14, 6075 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. G. Agrawal and N. Olsson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-25, 2297 (1997).

2009 (3)

A. Zavyalov, R. Iliew, O. Egorov, and F. Lederer, Phys. Rev. A 79, 053841 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Zavyalov, R. Iliew, O. Egorov, and F. Lederer, Phys. Rev. A 80, 043829 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Zavyalov, R. Iliew, O. Egorov, and F. Lederer, Opt. Lett. 34, 3827 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

T. Schreiber, B. Ortaç, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, Opt. Express 15, 8252 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Soto-Crespo, Ph. Grelu, N. N. Akhmediev, and N. Devine, Phys. Rev. E 75, 016613 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

A. Hideur, B. Ortaç, T. Chartier, M. Brunel, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, Opt. Commun. 225, 71 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, C. Lu, W. S. Man, and H. Y. Tam, Phys. Rev. A 66, 033806 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Grelu, F. Belhache, F. Gutty, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, Opt. Lett. 27, 966 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

1997 (2)

G. Agrawal and N. Olsson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-25, 2297 (1997).

N. N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4047 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G.

G. Agrawal and N. Olsson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-25, 2297 (1997).

Akhmediev, N. N.

J. M. Soto-Crespo, Ph. Grelu, N. N. Akhmediev, and N. Devine, Phys. Rev. E 75, 016613 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Soto-Crespo and N. N. Akhmediev, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 674 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Lederer, B. Luther-Davies, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, N. N. Akhmediev, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 895 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4047 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ankiewicz, A.

N. N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4047 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Belhache, F.

Brunel, M.

B. Ortaç, A. Hideur, M. Brunel, C. Chédot, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, and F. Ö. Ilday, Opt. Express 14, 6075 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hideur, B. Ortaç, T. Chartier, M. Brunel, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, Opt. Commun. 225, 71 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chartier, T.

A. Hideur, B. Ortaç, T. Chartier, M. Brunel, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, Opt. Commun. 225, 71 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chédot, C.

Devine, N.

J. M. Soto-Crespo, Ph. Grelu, N. N. Akhmediev, and N. Devine, Phys. Rev. E 75, 016613 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Egorov, O.

A. Zavyalov, R. Iliew, O. Egorov, and F. Lederer, Phys. Rev. A 80, 043829 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Zavyalov, R. Iliew, O. Egorov, and F. Lederer, Phys. Rev. A 79, 053841 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Zavyalov, R. Iliew, O. Egorov, and F. Lederer, Opt. Lett. 34, 3827 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grapinet, M.

Grelu, P.

Grelu, Ph.

J. M. Soto-Crespo, Ph. Grelu, N. N. Akhmediev, and N. Devine, Phys. Rev. E 75, 016613 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Grelu, F. Belhache, F. Gutty, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, Opt. Lett. 27, 966 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gutty, F.

Hideur, A.

B. Ortaç, A. Hideur, M. Brunel, C. Chédot, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, and F. Ö. Ilday, Opt. Express 14, 6075 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hideur, B. Ortaç, T. Chartier, M. Brunel, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, Opt. Commun. 225, 71 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hohmuth, R.

Ilday, F. Ö.

Iliew, R.

A. Zavyalov, R. Iliew, O. Egorov, and F. Lederer, Opt. Lett. 34, 3827 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zavyalov, R. Iliew, O. Egorov, and F. Lederer, Phys. Rev. A 79, 053841 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Zavyalov, R. Iliew, O. Egorov, and F. Lederer, Phys. Rev. A 80, 043829 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jagadish, C.

Leblond, H.

A. Hideur, B. Ortaç, T. Chartier, M. Brunel, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, Opt. Commun. 225, 71 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, F.

A. Zavyalov, R. Iliew, O. Egorov, and F. Lederer, Phys. Rev. A 80, 043829 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Zavyalov, R. Iliew, O. Egorov, and F. Lederer, Phys. Rev. A 79, 053841 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Zavyalov, R. Iliew, O. Egorov, and F. Lederer, Opt. Lett. 34, 3827 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lederer, M. J.

Limpert, J.

Lu, C.

D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, C. Lu, W. S. Man, and H. Y. Tam, Phys. Rev. A 66, 033806 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

Man, W. S.

D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, C. Lu, W. S. Man, and H. Y. Tam, Phys. Rev. A 66, 033806 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, C. K.

Olsson, N.

G. Agrawal and N. Olsson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-25, 2297 (1997).

Ortaç, B.

Richter, W.

Sanchez, F.

A. Hideur, B. Ortaç, T. Chartier, M. Brunel, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, Opt. Commun. 225, 71 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schreiber, T.

Shen, D. Y.

D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, C. Lu, W. S. Man, and H. Y. Tam, Phys. Rev. A 66, 033806 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Soto-Crespo, J. M.

Tam, H. Y.

D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, C. Lu, W. S. Man, and H. Y. Tam, Phys. Rev. A 66, 033806 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tan, H. H.

Tang, D. Y.

D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, C. Lu, W. S. Man, and H. Y. Tam, Phys. Rev. A 66, 033806 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

Zavyalov, A.

A. Zavyalov, R. Iliew, O. Egorov, and F. Lederer, Opt. Lett. 34, 3827 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zavyalov, R. Iliew, O. Egorov, and F. Lederer, Phys. Rev. A 80, 043829 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Zavyalov, R. Iliew, O. Egorov, and F. Lederer, Phys. Rev. A 79, 053841 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, B.

D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, C. Lu, W. S. Man, and H. Y. Tam, Phys. Rev. A 66, 033806 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. Agrawal and N. Olsson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-25, 2297 (1997).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Hideur, B. Ortaç, T. Chartier, M. Brunel, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, Opt. Commun. 225, 71 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (3)

A. Zavyalov, R. Iliew, O. Egorov, and F. Lederer, Phys. Rev. A 79, 053841 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Zavyalov, R. Iliew, O. Egorov, and F. Lederer, Phys. Rev. A 80, 043829 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, C. Lu, W. S. Man, and H. Y. Tam, Phys. Rev. A 66, 033806 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

J. M. Soto-Crespo, Ph. Grelu, N. N. Akhmediev, and N. Devine, Phys. Rev. E 75, 016613 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

N. N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4047 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup of the mode-locked fiber laser.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Experimentally measured and numerically calculated intensity autocorrelation functions and optical spectrum [(b) experiment; (d) modeling] of a soliton molecule. Other modeling results: (c) evolution of the molecule, (e) the phase difference between pulses as a function of the round-trip number, and (f) evolution trajectory in the phase plane.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Influence of the averaging process on the measured spectral profile in dependence on the internal molecule dynamics for two Gaussian pulses of duration T 0 and separation distance ρ 0 = 25 T 0 . In (a)–(c) the phase difference between pulses is oscillating with an amplitude A Φ and the separation is fixed. In (d)–(f) the separation is oscillating with an amplitude A P (normalized with T 0 ) and the phase difference is fixed.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

U ( z , t ) z + i 2 ( β 2 + i g ( z ) T 1 2 ) 2 U ( z , t ) 2 t = g ( z ) U ( z , t ) 2 + i γ | U ( z , t ) | 2 U ( z , t ) ,
U ( z , t ) z = 1 2 δ ( z , t ) U ( z , t ) ,
δ ( z , t ) t = δ 0 δ ( z , t ) T relax δ ( z , t ) | U ( z , t ) | 2 E sat SAM ,

Metrics