Abstract

The optical nonlinearities of a Au nanoparticle array were determined by performing Z-scan measurements with a femtosecond laser (800nm, 50fs). As the exciting energy increased, the nonlinear absorption of the Au nanoparticle array changed from reverse-saturable absorption to saturable absorption, while the nonlinear refraction changed from self-defocusing to self-focusing, which implies competition between ground-state bleaching and two-photon absorption. One- and two-photon figures of merit of W=5.1 and T=0.11, respectively, were obtained that satisfy the demand, W>1 and T<1, for all-optical switching.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. Simoyama, S. Sekiguchi, H. Yoshida, J. Kasai, T. Mozume, and H. Ishikawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 604 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

H. I. Elim, J. Yang, and J. Y. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083107 (2006).
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Q. Q. Wang, J. B. Han, H. M. Gong, D. J. Chen, X. J. Zhao, J. Y. Feng, and J. J. Ren, Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 2405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Gao, X. Zhang, Y. Li, H. Liu, Y. Wang, Q. Chang, W. Jiao, and Y. Song, Opt. Commun. 251, 429 (2005).
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S. Tatsuura, M. Furuki, Y. Sato, I. Iwaza, M. Tian, and H. Mitsu, Adv. Mater. 15, 534 (2003).
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Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975 (2002).
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1990 (1)

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Q. Q. Wang, J. B. Han, H. M. Gong, D. J. Chen, X. J. Zhao, J. Y. Feng, and J. J. Ren, Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 2405 (2006).
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Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975 (2002).
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B. T. Draine and P. J. Flatau, http://arXiv.org/abs/0809.0337v5 (2008).

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H. I. Elim, J. Yang, and J. Y. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083107 (2006).
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El-Sayed, M. A.

W. Y. Huang, W. Qian, and M. A. El-Sayed, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 18881 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Feng, J. Y.

Q. Q. Wang, J. B. Han, H. M. Gong, D. J. Chen, X. J. Zhao, J. Y. Feng, and J. J. Ren, Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 2405 (2006).
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B. T. Draine and P. J. Flatau, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1491 (1994).
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B. T. Draine and P. J. Flatau, http://arXiv.org/abs/0809.0337v5 (2008).

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J. T. Gopinath, M. Soljai, E. P. Ippen, V. N. Fuflyigin, W. A. King, and M. Shurgalin, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6931 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Furuki, M.

S. Tatsuura, M. Furuki, Y. Sato, I. Iwaza, M. Tian, and H. Mitsu, Adv. Mater. 15, 534 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

Y. Gao, X. Zhang, Y. Li, H. Liu, Y. Wang, Q. Chang, W. Jiao, and Y. Song, Opt. Commun. 251, 429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gong, H. M.

Q. Q. Wang, J. B. Han, H. M. Gong, D. J. Chen, X. J. Zhao, J. Y. Feng, and J. J. Ren, Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 2405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gopinath, J. T.

J. T. Gopinath, M. Soljai, E. P. Ippen, V. N. Fuflyigin, W. A. King, and M. Shurgalin, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6931 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Han, J. B.

Q. Q. Wang, J. B. Han, H. M. Gong, D. J. Chen, X. J. Zhao, J. Y. Feng, and J. J. Ren, Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 2405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Han, S. W.

Heo, J. H.

Huang, W. Y.

W. Y. Huang, W. Qian, and M. A. El-Sayed, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 18881 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, H. Y.

Ippen, E. P.

J. T. Gopinath, M. Soljai, E. P. Ippen, V. N. Fuflyigin, W. A. King, and M. Shurgalin, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6931 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, H.

T. Simoyama, S. Sekiguchi, H. Yoshida, J. Kasai, T. Mozume, and H. Ishikawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 604 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Iwaza, I.

S. Tatsuura, M. Furuki, Y. Sato, I. Iwaza, M. Tian, and H. Mitsu, Adv. Mater. 15, 534 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jiao, W.

Y. Gao, X. Zhang, Y. Li, H. Liu, Y. Wang, Q. Chang, W. Jiao, and Y. Song, Opt. Commun. 251, 429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jung, S. S.

Kaplan, A. E.

A. E. Kaplan and S. N. Volkov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 133902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasai, J.

T. Simoyama, S. Sekiguchi, H. Yoshida, J. Kasai, T. Mozume, and H. Ishikawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 604 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Katsufuji, T.

Kim, W. J.

King, W. A.

J. T. Gopinath, M. Soljai, E. P. Ippen, V. N. Fuflyigin, W. A. King, and M. Shurgalin, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6931 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. Y.

H. I. Elim, J. Yang, and J. Y. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. H.

Y. H. Lee, Y. L. Yan, L. Polavarapu, and Q. H. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 203105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lenz, G.

Li, Y.

Y. Gao, X. Zhang, Y. Li, H. Liu, Y. Wang, Q. Chang, W. Jiao, and Y. Song, Opt. Commun. 251, 429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lines, M. E.

Liu, H.

Y. Gao, X. Zhang, Y. Li, H. Liu, Y. Wang, Q. Chang, W. Jiao, and Y. Song, Opt. Commun. 251, 429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T. M.

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ma, S. M.

Mitsu, H.

S. Tatsuura, M. Furuki, Y. Sato, I. Iwaza, M. Tian, and H. Mitsu, Adv. Mater. 15, 534 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mozume, T.

T. Simoyama, S. Sekiguchi, H. Yoshida, J. Kasai, T. Mozume, and H. Ishikawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 604 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Polavarapu, L.

Y. H. Lee, Y. L. Yan, L. Polavarapu, and Q. H. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 203105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Qian, W.

W. Y. Huang, W. Qian, and M. A. El-Sayed, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 18881 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Raravikar, N. R.

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ren, J. J.

Q. Q. Wang, J. B. Han, H. M. Gong, D. J. Chen, X. J. Zhao, J. Y. Feng, and J. J. Ren, Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 2405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sato, Y.

S. Tatsuura, M. Furuki, Y. Sato, I. Iwaza, M. Tian, and H. Mitsu, Adv. Mater. 15, 534 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schadler, L. S.

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sekiguchi, S.

T. Simoyama, S. Sekiguchi, H. Yoshida, J. Kasai, T. Mozume, and H. Ishikawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 604 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Seo, J. T.

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shurgalin, M.

J. T. Gopinath, M. Soljai, E. P. Ippen, V. N. Fuflyigin, W. A. King, and M. Shurgalin, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6931 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Simoyama, T.

T. Simoyama, S. Sekiguchi, H. Yoshida, J. Kasai, T. Mozume, and H. Ishikawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 604 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Slusher, R. E.

Soljai, M.

J. T. Gopinath, M. Soljai, E. P. Ippen, V. N. Fuflyigin, W. A. King, and M. Shurgalin, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6931 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y.

Y. Gao, X. Zhang, Y. Li, H. Liu, Y. Wang, Q. Chang, W. Jiao, and Y. Song, Opt. Commun. 251, 429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Spälter, S.

Tabibi, B.

Tatsuura, S.

S. Tatsuura, M. Furuki, Y. Sato, I. Iwaza, M. Tian, and H. Mitsu, Adv. Mater. 15, 534 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Temple, D.

Tian, M.

S. Tatsuura, M. Furuki, Y. Sato, I. Iwaza, M. Tian, and H. Mitsu, Adv. Mater. 15, 534 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Volkov, S. N.

A. E. Kaplan and S. N. Volkov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 133902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, G. C.

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q. Q.

Q. Q. Wang, J. B. Han, H. M. Gong, D. J. Chen, X. J. Zhao, J. Y. Feng, and J. J. Ren, Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 2405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Y. Gao, X. Zhang, Y. Li, H. Liu, Y. Wang, Q. Chang, W. Jiao, and Y. Song, Opt. Commun. 251, 429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T. H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q. H.

Y. H. Lee, Y. L. Yan, L. Polavarapu, and Q. H. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 203105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yan, Y. L.

Y. H. Lee, Y. L. Yan, L. Polavarapu, and Q. H. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 203105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

H. I. Elim, J. Yang, and J. Y. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Q. G.

Yoshida, H.

T. Simoyama, S. Sekiguchi, H. Yoshida, J. Kasai, T. Mozume, and H. Ishikawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 604 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yun, W. S.

Zhang, X.

Y. Gao, X. Zhang, Y. Li, H. Liu, Y. Wang, Q. Chang, W. Jiao, and Y. Song, Opt. Commun. 251, 429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. C.

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, X. J.

Q. Q. Wang, J. B. Han, H. M. Gong, D. J. Chen, X. J. Zhao, J. Y. Feng, and J. J. Ren, Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 2405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y. P.

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, J.

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

Q. Q. Wang, J. B. Han, H. M. Gong, D. J. Chen, X. J. Zhao, J. Y. Feng, and J. J. Ren, Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 2405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

S. Tatsuura, M. Furuki, Y. Sato, I. Iwaza, M. Tian, and H. Mitsu, Adv. Mater. 15, 534 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

Y. H. Lee, Y. L. Yan, L. Polavarapu, and Q. H. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 203105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. I. Elim, J. Yang, and J. Y. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

T. Simoyama, S. Sekiguchi, H. Yoshida, J. Kasai, T. Mozume, and H. Ishikawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 604 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. T. Gopinath, M. Soljai, E. P. Ippen, V. N. Fuflyigin, W. A. King, and M. Shurgalin, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6931 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

W. Y. Huang, W. Qian, and M. A. El-Sayed, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 18881 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Y. Gao, X. Zhang, Y. Li, H. Liu, Y. Wang, Q. Chang, W. Jiao, and Y. Song, Opt. Commun. 251, 429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. E. Kaplan and S. N. Volkov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 133902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

B. T. Draine and P. J. Flatau, http://arXiv.org/abs/0809.0337v5 (2008).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption spectrum of Au nanoparticle array with SPR peak at 566 nm . The lighter curve (blue online) shows the DDA calculated result of absorption properties for a single Au particle with the same cross section and a particle height of 8 nm .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

OA Z-scan results for the Au PPAs at different excitation intensities at the focal point I 0 = 15 GW cm 2 (diamonds), 46 GW cm 2 (triangles), 55 GW cm 2 (circles), 280 GW cm 2 (squares). The solid curves show the theoretical fit.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a), (b) CA Z-scan results at different exciting intensities at the focal point I 0 = 46 GW cm 2 , 55 GW cm 2 , 280 GW cm 2 . The solid curves show the theoretical fitting. (c), (d) 2PA coefficient and the nonlinear refraction index as functions of intensity.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d I d z = [ α 0 ( 1 + I I s ) + β I ] I ,

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