Abstract

Reabsorption of spontaneously emitted photons by optically active ions in a laser material can significantly affect the measured emission spectra. A measurement technique to suppress reabsorpion artifacts in fluorescence spectra is reported. A theoretical description of the method as well as experimental results are presented. In combination with another version of the pinhole method for the determination of reabsorption-free fluorescence lifetimes, this technique allows one to suppress the influence of reabsorption artifacts in emission cross sections calculated by the Füchtbauer–Ladenburg equation.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. T. Kobayashi and S. Nagakura, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 26, 33 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Sakuma, N. Hirosaki, and R.-J. Xie, J. Lumin. 126, 843 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. P. Weber, P. F. Liao, and B. C. Tofield, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 563 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  4. I. N. Bronstein, K. A. Semendjajew, G. Musiol, and H. Muehlig, Handbook of Mathematics (Springer-Verlag, 2002).
  5. A. Einstein, Verh. Dtsch. Phys. Ges. 63, 318 (1916).
  6. K. Petermann, D. Fagundes-Peters, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, V. Peters, J. J. Romero, S. Kutovoi, J. Speiser, and A. Giesen, J. Cryst. Growth 275, 135 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Kühn, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, C. Kränkel, R. Peters, and K. Petermann, Opt. Lett. 32, 1908 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. F. Auzel and G. Baldacchini, J. Lumin. 125, 25 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. E. McCumber, Phys. Rev. 136, A954 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Petermann, G. Huber, L. Fornasiero, S. Kuch, E. Mix, V. Peters, and S. A. Basun, J. Lumin. 87–89, 973 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (3)

K. Sakuma, N. Hirosaki, and R.-J. Xie, J. Lumin. 126, 843 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Auzel and G. Baldacchini, J. Lumin. 125, 25 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Kühn, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, C. Kränkel, R. Peters, and K. Petermann, Opt. Lett. 32, 1908 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

K. Petermann, D. Fagundes-Peters, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, V. Peters, J. J. Romero, S. Kutovoi, J. Speiser, and A. Giesen, J. Cryst. Growth 275, 135 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

K. Petermann, G. Huber, L. Fornasiero, S. Kuch, E. Mix, V. Peters, and S. A. Basun, J. Lumin. 87–89, 973 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1974 (2)

T. Kobayashi and S. Nagakura, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 26, 33 (1974).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Weber, P. F. Liao, and B. C. Tofield, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 563 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

D. E. McCumber, Phys. Rev. 136, A954 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1916 (1)

A. Einstein, Verh. Dtsch. Phys. Ges. 63, 318 (1916).

Auzel, F.

F. Auzel and G. Baldacchini, J. Lumin. 125, 25 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baldacchini, G.

F. Auzel and G. Baldacchini, J. Lumin. 125, 25 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Basun, S. A.

K. Petermann, G. Huber, L. Fornasiero, S. Kuch, E. Mix, V. Peters, and S. A. Basun, J. Lumin. 87–89, 973 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bronstein, I. N.

I. N. Bronstein, K. A. Semendjajew, G. Musiol, and H. Muehlig, Handbook of Mathematics (Springer-Verlag, 2002).

Einstein, A.

A. Einstein, Verh. Dtsch. Phys. Ges. 63, 318 (1916).

Fagundes-Peters, D.

K. Petermann, D. Fagundes-Peters, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, V. Peters, J. J. Romero, S. Kutovoi, J. Speiser, and A. Giesen, J. Cryst. Growth 275, 135 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fornasiero, L.

K. Petermann, G. Huber, L. Fornasiero, S. Kuch, E. Mix, V. Peters, and S. A. Basun, J. Lumin. 87–89, 973 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fredrich-Thornton, S. T.

Giesen, A.

K. Petermann, D. Fagundes-Peters, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, V. Peters, J. J. Romero, S. Kutovoi, J. Speiser, and A. Giesen, J. Cryst. Growth 275, 135 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hirosaki, N.

K. Sakuma, N. Hirosaki, and R.-J. Xie, J. Lumin. 126, 843 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

K. Petermann, G. Huber, L. Fornasiero, S. Kuch, E. Mix, V. Peters, and S. A. Basun, J. Lumin. 87–89, 973 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Johannsen, J.

K. Petermann, D. Fagundes-Peters, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, V. Peters, J. J. Romero, S. Kutovoi, J. Speiser, and A. Giesen, J. Cryst. Growth 275, 135 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, T.

T. Kobayashi and S. Nagakura, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 26, 33 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Kränkel, C.

Kuch, S.

K. Petermann, G. Huber, L. Fornasiero, S. Kuch, E. Mix, V. Peters, and S. A. Basun, J. Lumin. 87–89, 973 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kühn, H.

Kutovoi, S.

K. Petermann, D. Fagundes-Peters, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, V. Peters, J. J. Romero, S. Kutovoi, J. Speiser, and A. Giesen, J. Cryst. Growth 275, 135 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liao, P. F.

H. P. Weber, P. F. Liao, and B. C. Tofield, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 563 (1974).
[CrossRef]

McCumber, D. E.

D. E. McCumber, Phys. Rev. 136, A954 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Mix, E.

K. Petermann, G. Huber, L. Fornasiero, S. Kuch, E. Mix, V. Peters, and S. A. Basun, J. Lumin. 87–89, 973 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mond, M.

K. Petermann, D. Fagundes-Peters, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, V. Peters, J. J. Romero, S. Kutovoi, J. Speiser, and A. Giesen, J. Cryst. Growth 275, 135 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Muehlig, H.

I. N. Bronstein, K. A. Semendjajew, G. Musiol, and H. Muehlig, Handbook of Mathematics (Springer-Verlag, 2002).

Musiol, G.

I. N. Bronstein, K. A. Semendjajew, G. Musiol, and H. Muehlig, Handbook of Mathematics (Springer-Verlag, 2002).

Nagakura, S.

T. Kobayashi and S. Nagakura, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 26, 33 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Petermann, K.

H. Kühn, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, C. Kränkel, R. Peters, and K. Petermann, Opt. Lett. 32, 1908 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Petermann, D. Fagundes-Peters, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, V. Peters, J. J. Romero, S. Kutovoi, J. Speiser, and A. Giesen, J. Cryst. Growth 275, 135 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Petermann, G. Huber, L. Fornasiero, S. Kuch, E. Mix, V. Peters, and S. A. Basun, J. Lumin. 87–89, 973 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Peters, R.

Peters, V.

K. Petermann, D. Fagundes-Peters, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, V. Peters, J. J. Romero, S. Kutovoi, J. Speiser, and A. Giesen, J. Cryst. Growth 275, 135 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Petermann, G. Huber, L. Fornasiero, S. Kuch, E. Mix, V. Peters, and S. A. Basun, J. Lumin. 87–89, 973 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Romero, J. J.

K. Petermann, D. Fagundes-Peters, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, V. Peters, J. J. Romero, S. Kutovoi, J. Speiser, and A. Giesen, J. Cryst. Growth 275, 135 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sakuma, K.

K. Sakuma, N. Hirosaki, and R.-J. Xie, J. Lumin. 126, 843 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Semendjajew, K. A.

I. N. Bronstein, K. A. Semendjajew, G. Musiol, and H. Muehlig, Handbook of Mathematics (Springer-Verlag, 2002).

Speiser, J.

K. Petermann, D. Fagundes-Peters, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, V. Peters, J. J. Romero, S. Kutovoi, J. Speiser, and A. Giesen, J. Cryst. Growth 275, 135 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tofield, B. C.

H. P. Weber, P. F. Liao, and B. C. Tofield, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 563 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H. P.

H. P. Weber, P. F. Liao, and B. C. Tofield, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 563 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Xie, R.-J.

K. Sakuma, N. Hirosaki, and R.-J. Xie, J. Lumin. 126, 843 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. P. Weber, P. F. Liao, and B. C. Tofield, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 563 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

K. Petermann, D. Fagundes-Peters, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, V. Peters, J. J. Romero, S. Kutovoi, J. Speiser, and A. Giesen, J. Cryst. Growth 275, 135 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (3)

F. Auzel and G. Baldacchini, J. Lumin. 125, 25 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Petermann, G. Huber, L. Fornasiero, S. Kuch, E. Mix, V. Peters, and S. A. Basun, J. Lumin. 87–89, 973 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Sakuma, N. Hirosaki, and R.-J. Xie, J. Lumin. 126, 843 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

T. Kobayashi and S. Nagakura, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 26, 33 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. (1)

D. E. McCumber, Phys. Rev. 136, A954 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Verh. Dtsch. Phys. Ges. (1)

A. Einstein, Verh. Dtsch. Phys. Ges. 63, 318 (1916).

Other (1)

I. N. Bronstein, K. A. Semendjajew, G. Musiol, and H. Muehlig, Handbook of Mathematics (Springer-Verlag, 2002).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Propagation and reabsorption of spontaneously emitted photons in a crystal.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured and normalized emission spectra of a Yb 3 + ( 3 % ) : Y 2 O 3 crystal, obtained by using pinholes with different radii. The extrapolated spectrum is plotted in black.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured and normalized fluorescence intensities of a Yb 3 + ( 3 % ) : Y 2 O 3 crystal at 976.5 and 1030.1 nm as a function of the pinhole radius.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured absorpion cross sections for a Yb 3 + ( 3 % ) : Y 2 O 3 crystal [10] as well as emission cross sections for the same crystal, calculated by the McCumber relation from the absorption cross sections.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Emission cross sections of a Yb 3 + ( 3 % ) : Y 2 O 3 crystal, obtained by the pinhole method. For comparison the emission cross sections of the same crystal obtained without any reabsorption suppression are also shown.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I ( λ ) 0 L I em ( λ ) e x σ abs ( λ ) N g d x d A = A I em ( λ ) σ abs ( λ ) N g ( 1 e L σ abs ( λ ) N g ) .
I ( λ ) I em ( λ ) ( 1 1 2 L σ abs ( λ ) N g ) .
I 0 ( λ ) = I ¯ ( λ ) i = 1 N ( R i R ¯ ) ( I R i ( λ ) I ¯ ( λ ) ) i = 1 N ( R i R ¯ ) 2 R ¯ .

Metrics