Abstract

A multistep processing and reactive ion etching technique has been developed to fabricate optical channel waveguides based on deoxyribonucleic acid-cetyltrimethylammonium biopolymer material. The channel waveguides exhibit excellent single-mode output and high confinement of light because of the sharp waveguide profile with very smooth surfaces and vertical sidewalls. The measurement results show that these channel waveguides have low propagation losses and small polarization dependent losses at 633, 1310, and 1550nm wavelengths.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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A. J. Steckl, Nature Photon. 1, 3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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J. Zhou, A. Pyayt, L. R. Dalton, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, and A. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2221 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

E. M. Heckman, J. A. Hagen, P. P. Yaney, J. G. Grote, and F. K. Hopkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamaoka, Y. Kagami, M. Wada, A. Watanuki, J. Yoshida, H. Ikeda, and N. Ogata, Proc. SPIE 5624, 193 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

N. Jukam and M. S. Sherwin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 21 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

D. Day and M. Gu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

W. H. Wong, J. Zhou, and E. Y. B. Pun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2110 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, J. Yoshida, and N. Ogata, Chem. Mater. 13, 1273 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Wong and E. Y. B. Pun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3576 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Yoshida, and N. Ogata, Proc. SPIE 4580, 337 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

Y. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, and O. Y. Feoktistova, J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 563 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, A.

J. Zhou, A. Pyayt, L. R. Dalton, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, and A. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2221 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L. R.

J. Zhou, A. Pyayt, L. R. Dalton, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, and A. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2221 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Day, D.

D. Day and M. Gu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fedorov, V. A.

Y. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, and O. Y. Feoktistova, J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 563 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Feoktistova, O. Y.

Y. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, and O. Y. Feoktistova, J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 563 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Grote, J. G.

E. M. Heckman, J. A. Hagen, P. P. Yaney, J. G. Grote, and F. K. Hopkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gu, M.

D. Day and M. Gu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hagen, J. A.

E. M. Heckman, J. A. Hagen, P. P. Yaney, J. G. Grote, and F. K. Hopkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Heckman, E. M.

E. M. Heckman, J. A. Hagen, P. P. Yaney, J. G. Grote, and F. K. Hopkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hopkins, F. K.

E. M. Heckman, J. A. Hagen, P. P. Yaney, J. G. Grote, and F. K. Hopkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, H.

K. Yamaoka, Y. Kagami, M. Wada, A. Watanuki, J. Yoshida, H. Ikeda, and N. Ogata, Proc. SPIE 5624, 193 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A. K. Y.

J. Zhou, A. Pyayt, L. R. Dalton, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, and A. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2221 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jukam, N.

N. Jukam and M. S. Sherwin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 21 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kagami, Y.

K. Yamaoka, Y. Kagami, M. Wada, A. Watanuki, J. Yoshida, H. Ikeda, and N. Ogata, Proc. SPIE 5624, 193 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Korkishko, Y. N.

Y. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, and O. Y. Feoktistova, J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 563 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J.

J. Zhou, A. Pyayt, L. R. Dalton, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, and A. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2221 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ogata, N.

K. Yamaoka, Y. Kagami, M. Wada, A. Watanuki, J. Yoshida, H. Ikeda, and N. Ogata, Proc. SPIE 5624, 193 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, J. Yoshida, and N. Ogata, Chem. Mater. 13, 1273 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Yoshida, and N. Ogata, Proc. SPIE 4580, 337 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pun, E. Y. B.

W. H. Wong, J. Zhou, and E. Y. B. Pun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2110 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Wong and E. Y. B. Pun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3576 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pyayt, A.

J. Zhou, A. Pyayt, L. R. Dalton, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, and A. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2221 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sherwin, M. S.

N. Jukam and M. S. Sherwin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 21 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Steckl, A. J.

A. J. Steckl, Nature Photon. 1, 3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wada, M.

K. Yamaoka, Y. Kagami, M. Wada, A. Watanuki, J. Yoshida, H. Ikeda, and N. Ogata, Proc. SPIE 5624, 193 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, J. Yoshida, and N. Ogata, Chem. Mater. 13, 1273 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Yoshida, and N. Ogata, Proc. SPIE 4580, 337 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Watanuki, A.

K. Yamaoka, Y. Kagami, M. Wada, A. Watanuki, J. Yoshida, H. Ikeda, and N. Ogata, Proc. SPIE 5624, 193 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wong, W. H.

W. H. Wong and E. Y. B. Pun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3576 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Wong, J. Zhou, and E. Y. B. Pun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2110 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yamaoka, K.

K. Yamaoka, Y. Kagami, M. Wada, A. Watanuki, J. Yoshida, H. Ikeda, and N. Ogata, Proc. SPIE 5624, 193 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yaney, P. P.

E. M. Heckman, J. A. Hagen, P. P. Yaney, J. G. Grote, and F. K. Hopkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, J.

K. Yamaoka, Y. Kagami, M. Wada, A. Watanuki, J. Yoshida, H. Ikeda, and N. Ogata, Proc. SPIE 5624, 193 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, J. Yoshida, and N. Ogata, Chem. Mater. 13, 1273 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Yoshida, and N. Ogata, Proc. SPIE 4580, 337 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G.

G. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Yoshida, and N. Ogata, Proc. SPIE 4580, 337 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, A. Pyayt, L. R. Dalton, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, and A. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2221 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Wong, J. Zhou, and E. Y. B. Pun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2110 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. Day and M. Gu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Wong, J. Zhou, and E. Y. B. Pun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2110 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Wong and E. Y. B. Pun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3576 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Jukam and M. S. Sherwin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 21 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Heckman, J. A. Hagen, P. P. Yaney, J. G. Grote, and F. K. Hopkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater.

L. Wang, J. Yoshida, and N. Ogata, Chem. Mater. 13, 1273 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

J. Zhou, A. Pyayt, L. R. Dalton, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, and A. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2221 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Y. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, and O. Y. Feoktistova, J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 563 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nature Photon.

A. J. Steckl, Nature Photon. 1, 3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

G. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Yoshida, and N. Ogata, Proc. SPIE 4580, 337 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamaoka, Y. Kagami, M. Wada, A. Watanuki, J. Yoshida, H. Ikeda, and N. Ogata, Proc. SPIE 5624, 193 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Absorption spectrum of DNA-CTMA thin film (thickness 0.2 mm ). (b) Refractive indices of DNA-CTMA and PMMA films as a function of wavelength.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fabrication process flow for DNA-CTMA channel waveguides.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Microscope images of a DNA-CTMA channel waveguide. (a) AFM image. (b) SEM image.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Near-field mode pattern on the monitor of the CCD camera system.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measurement results for DNA-CTMA single-mode channel waveguides with PMMA top-cladding.

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