Abstract

We propose a silicon waveguide-fiber grating coupler that uses a subwavelength microstructure to achieve a continuously variable grating strength yet can be fabricated using only a single etch step. By adjusting the subwavelength microstructure at every point along the grating, the grating coupler can be optimized to give high field overlap with the optical fiber mode and also minimize backreflections along the incident waveguide path. Our design example is optimized for quasi-TM mode in a silicon photonic-wire waveguide, as required for waveguide evanescent-field-sensing applications. A field overlap of up to 94% with a standard single-mode optical fiber (SMF-28) is achieved by coupler apodization. Backreflection from the grating is reduced to 0.1%, and the total predicted photonic wire to fiber coupling efficiency is 50%.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. Tamir and S. Peng, Appl. Phys. 14, 235 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Opt. Lett. 29, 2749 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optics Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper PDP15.
    [PubMed]
  4. P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, and S. Tanev, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 13 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, Opt. Express 14, 11622 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. Roelkens, D. Thourhout, and R. Baets, Opt. Lett. 32, 1495 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. B. Wang, J. Jiang, and G. Nordin, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1884 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Densmore, D. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delge, B. Lamontagne, J. Schmid, and E. Post, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2520 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, B. Lamontagne, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 12008.
[CrossRef]

P. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Delâge, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and T. J. Hall, Opt. Express 16, 17616 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

2006

P. Cheben, D. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Densmore, Opt. Express 14, 4695 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, Opt. Express 14, 11622 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, and S. Tanev, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 13 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Densmore, D. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delge, B. Lamontagne, J. Schmid, and E. Post, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

B. Wang, J. Jiang, and G. Nordin, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1884 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Mossberg, C. Greiner, and D. Iazikov, Opt. Express 13, 2419 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

1998

1977

T. Tamir and S. Peng, Appl. Phys. 14, 235 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1956

S. M. Rytov, Sov. Phys. JETP 2, 466 (1956).

Baets, R.

G. Roelkens, D. Thourhout, and R. Baets, Opt. Lett. 32, 1495 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, Opt. Express 14, 11622 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Opt. Lett. 29, 2749 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optics Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper PDP15.
[PubMed]

Bienstman, P.

Bock, P.

Bogaerts, W.

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optics Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper PDP15.
[PubMed]

Cheben, P.

P. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Delâge, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and T. J. Hall, Opt. Express 16, 17616 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, B. Lamontagne, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 12008.
[CrossRef]

A. Densmore, D. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delge, B. Lamontagne, J. Schmid, and E. Post, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, and S. Tanev, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 13 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, D. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Densmore, Opt. Express 14, 4695 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delâge, A.

P. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Delâge, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and T. J. Hall, Opt. Express 16, 17616 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, B. Lamontagne, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 12008.
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, and S. Tanev, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 13 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Delge, A.

A. Densmore, D. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delge, B. Lamontagne, J. Schmid, and E. Post, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Densmore, A.

H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, B. Lamontagne, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 12008.
[CrossRef]

A. Densmore, D. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delge, B. Lamontagne, J. Schmid, and E. Post, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, D. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Densmore, Opt. Express 14, 4695 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dumon, P.

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optics Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper PDP15.
[PubMed]

Greiner, C.

Hall, T. J.

Hugonin, J.

Iazikov, D.

Janz, S.

P. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Delâge, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and T. J. Hall, Opt. Express 16, 17616 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, B. Lamontagne, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 12008.
[CrossRef]

A. Densmore, D. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delge, B. Lamontagne, J. Schmid, and E. Post, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, and S. Tanev, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 13 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, D. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Densmore, Opt. Express 14, 4695 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, J.

B. Wang, J. Jiang, and G. Nordin, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1884 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lalanne, P.

Lamontagne, B.

H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, B. Lamontagne, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 12008.
[CrossRef]

A. Densmore, D. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delge, B. Lamontagne, J. Schmid, and E. Post, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, and S. Tanev, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 13 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lapointe, J.

H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, B. Lamontagne, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 12008.
[CrossRef]

A. Densmore, D. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delge, B. Lamontagne, J. Schmid, and E. Post, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mossberg, T.

Nordin, G.

B. Wang, J. Jiang, and G. Nordin, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1884 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peng, S.

T. Tamir and S. Peng, Appl. Phys. 14, 235 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Post, E.

H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, B. Lamontagne, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 12008.
[CrossRef]

A. Densmore, D. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delge, B. Lamontagne, J. Schmid, and E. Post, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Roelkens, G.

G. Roelkens, D. Thourhout, and R. Baets, Opt. Lett. 32, 1495 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, Opt. Express 14, 11622 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optics Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper PDP15.
[PubMed]

Rytov, S. M.

S. M. Rytov, Sov. Phys. JETP 2, 466 (1956).

Schmid, H.

H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, B. Lamontagne, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 12008.
[CrossRef]

Schmid, J.

A. Densmore, D. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delge, B. Lamontagne, J. Schmid, and E. Post, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, J. H.

Schrauwen, J.

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optics Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper PDP15.
[PubMed]

Taillaert, D.

D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Opt. Lett. 29, 2749 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optics Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper PDP15.
[PubMed]

Tamir, T.

T. Tamir and S. Peng, Appl. Phys. 14, 235 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Tanev, S.

P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, and S. Tanev, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 13 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thourhout, D.

Van Laere, F.

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optics Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper PDP15.
[PubMed]

Van Thourhout, D.

G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, Opt. Express 14, 11622 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optics Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper PDP15.
[PubMed]

Waldron, P.

H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, B. Lamontagne, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 12008.
[CrossRef]

A. Densmore, D. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delge, B. Lamontagne, J. Schmid, and E. Post, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, B.

B. Wang, J. Jiang, and G. Nordin, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1884 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, D.

A. Densmore, D. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delge, B. Lamontagne, J. Schmid, and E. Post, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, D. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Densmore, Opt. Express 14, 4695 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, D.-X.

H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, B. Lamontagne, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 12008.
[CrossRef]

P. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Delâge, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and T. J. Hall, Opt. Express 16, 17616 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, and S. Tanev, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 13 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Opt. Technol.

H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, B. Lamontagne, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 12008.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys.

T. Tamir and S. Peng, Appl. Phys. 14, 235 (1977).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

B. Wang, J. Jiang, and G. Nordin, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1884 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Densmore, D. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delge, B. Lamontagne, J. Schmid, and E. Post, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, and S. Tanev, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 13 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Sov. Phys. JETP

S. M. Rytov, Sov. Phys. JETP 2, 466 (1956).

Other

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optics Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper PDP15.
[PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Fiber-to-chip grating coupler with SWG in lateral direction. Decoupled model schematics for (b) the vertical dimension showing the first two periods of the grating and (c) the lateral dimension.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Radiated H x field at a plane y = 1.5 μ m over the grating surface, for different coupler configurations: (a) without SWG, (b) with SWG. Fields have been shifted in the z direction for a maximum overlap with the fiber mode. The tilt angle of the fiber mode is 12° with respect to the grating normal ( y ) in the y z plane.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Refractive index of the effective medium created by a silicon SWG with a pitch of Λ x = 300 nm , as a function of air gap. TM polarization is assumed.

Equations (1)

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C = P u ( 1 R f ) O f ,

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