Abstract

We present a concentric microdisk design in which luminescence from an inner disk of Si nanocrystals (Si-ncs) contributes to resonant modes in an outer ring of SiO2. Photoluminescence from fabricated structures reveals the excitation of whispering-gallery modes (WGMs) with quality factors as high as 2850, limited by the spectral resolution of our spectrometer. Two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulations provide insight into the WGM properties and the role of disk and ring geometry. The presented concentric disk structure provides a means to use the efficient visible luminescence of Si-ncs as an optical pump for an extrinsic lasing material such as Er:SiO2.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2008 (4)

2006 (3)

J. Kalkman, A. Tchebotareva, A. Polman, T. J. Kippenberg, B. Min, and K. J. Vahala, J. Appl. Phys. 99, 083103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Jalali and S. Fathpour, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4600 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Zhang, S. Seo, A. P. Milenin, M. Zacharias, and U. Gosele, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

L. Pavesi, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 15, R1169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

G. Franzò, A. Irrera, E. C. Moreira, M. Miritello, F. Iacona, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, P. G. Fallica, and F. Priolo, Appl. Phys. A A74, 1 (2002).

2001 (1)

V. Ovchinnikov, A. Malinin, V. Sokolov, O. Kilpela, and J. Sinkkonen, Opt. Mater. 17, 103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzo, and F. Priolo, Nature 408, 440 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

D. J. Lockwood, Z. H. Lu, and J. M. Baribeau, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 539 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baribeau, J. M.

D. J. Lockwood, Z. H. Lu, and J. M. Baribeau, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 539 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M.

R. Kekatpure and M. Brongersma, Phys. Rev. A 78, 023829 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Kekatpure and M. Brongersma, Nano Lett. 8, 3787 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Creazzo, T.

D. W. Prather, B. Redding, T. Creazzo, E. Marchena, and S. Shi, “Integration of silicon nanocrystals and erbium ring cavities for a two-stage silicon laser,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. (to be published).

Dal Negro, L.

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzo, and F. Priolo, Nature 408, 440 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Di Stefano, G.

G. Franzò, A. Irrera, E. C. Moreira, M. Miritello, F. Iacona, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, P. G. Fallica, and F. Priolo, Appl. Phys. A A74, 1 (2002).

Fallica, P. G.

G. Franzò, A. Irrera, E. C. Moreira, M. Miritello, F. Iacona, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, P. G. Fallica, and F. Priolo, Appl. Phys. A A74, 1 (2002).

Fathpour, S.

Franzo, G.

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzo, and F. Priolo, Nature 408, 440 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franzò, G.

G. Franzò, A. Irrera, E. C. Moreira, M. Miritello, F. Iacona, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, P. G. Fallica, and F. Priolo, Appl. Phys. A A74, 1 (2002).

Ghulinyan, M.

Gosele, U.

R. Zhang, S. Seo, A. P. Milenin, M. Zacharias, and U. Gosele, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Iacona, F.

G. Franzò, A. Irrera, E. C. Moreira, M. Miritello, F. Iacona, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, P. G. Fallica, and F. Priolo, Appl. Phys. A A74, 1 (2002).

Irrera, A.

G. Franzò, A. Irrera, E. C. Moreira, M. Miritello, F. Iacona, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, P. G. Fallica, and F. Priolo, Appl. Phys. A A74, 1 (2002).

Jalali, B.

Kalkman, J.

J. Kalkman, A. Tchebotareva, A. Polman, T. J. Kippenberg, B. Min, and K. J. Vahala, J. Appl. Phys. 99, 083103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kekatpure, R.

R. Kekatpure and M. Brongersma, Nano Lett. 8, 3787 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kekatpure and M. Brongersma, Phys. Rev. A 78, 023829 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kilpela, O.

V. Ovchinnikov, A. Malinin, V. Sokolov, O. Kilpela, and J. Sinkkonen, Opt. Mater. 17, 103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kippenberg, T. J.

J. Kalkman, A. Tchebotareva, A. Polman, T. J. Kippenberg, B. Min, and K. J. Vahala, J. Appl. Phys. 99, 083103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.

Lin, G.

Lockwood, D. J.

D. J. Lockwood, Z. H. Lu, and J. M. Baribeau, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 539 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, Z. H.

D. J. Lockwood, Z. H. Lu, and J. M. Baribeau, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 539 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lui, A.

Malinin, A.

V. Ovchinnikov, A. Malinin, V. Sokolov, O. Kilpela, and J. Sinkkonen, Opt. Mater. 17, 103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Marchena, E.

D. W. Prather, B. Redding, T. Creazzo, E. Marchena, and S. Shi, “Integration of silicon nanocrystals and erbium ring cavities for a two-stage silicon laser,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. (to be published).

Mazzoleni, C.

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzo, and F. Priolo, Nature 408, 440 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milenin, A. P.

R. Zhang, S. Seo, A. P. Milenin, M. Zacharias, and U. Gosele, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Min, B.

J. Kalkman, A. Tchebotareva, A. Polman, T. J. Kippenberg, B. Min, and K. J. Vahala, J. Appl. Phys. 99, 083103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miritello, M.

G. Franzò, A. Irrera, E. C. Moreira, M. Miritello, F. Iacona, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, P. G. Fallica, and F. Priolo, Appl. Phys. A A74, 1 (2002).

Moreira, E. C.

G. Franzò, A. Irrera, E. C. Moreira, M. Miritello, F. Iacona, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, P. G. Fallica, and F. Priolo, Appl. Phys. A A74, 1 (2002).

Navarro-Urrios, D.

Ovchinnikov, V.

V. Ovchinnikov, A. Malinin, V. Sokolov, O. Kilpela, and J. Sinkkonen, Opt. Mater. 17, 103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pai, Y.

Pavesi, L.

M. Ghulinyan, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Pitanti, A. Lui, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, Opt. Express 16, 13218 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Pavesi, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 15, R1169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzo, and F. Priolo, Nature 408, 440 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pitanti, A.

Polman, A.

J. Kalkman, A. Tchebotareva, A. Polman, T. J. Kippenberg, B. Min, and K. J. Vahala, J. Appl. Phys. 99, 083103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Prather, D. W.

D. W. Prather, B. Redding, T. Creazzo, E. Marchena, and S. Shi, “Integration of silicon nanocrystals and erbium ring cavities for a two-stage silicon laser,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. (to be published).

Priolo, F.

G. Franzò, A. Irrera, E. C. Moreira, M. Miritello, F. Iacona, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, P. G. Fallica, and F. Priolo, Appl. Phys. A A74, 1 (2002).

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzo, and F. Priolo, Nature 408, 440 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pucker, G.

Redding, B.

D. W. Prather, B. Redding, T. Creazzo, E. Marchena, and S. Shi, “Integration of silicon nanocrystals and erbium ring cavities for a two-stage silicon laser,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. (to be published).

Sanfilippo, D.

G. Franzò, A. Irrera, E. C. Moreira, M. Miritello, F. Iacona, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, P. G. Fallica, and F. Priolo, Appl. Phys. A A74, 1 (2002).

Seo, S.

R. Zhang, S. Seo, A. P. Milenin, M. Zacharias, and U. Gosele, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shi, S.

D. W. Prather, B. Redding, T. Creazzo, E. Marchena, and S. Shi, “Integration of silicon nanocrystals and erbium ring cavities for a two-stage silicon laser,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. (to be published).

Sinkkonen, J.

V. Ovchinnikov, A. Malinin, V. Sokolov, O. Kilpela, and J. Sinkkonen, Opt. Mater. 17, 103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sokolov, V.

V. Ovchinnikov, A. Malinin, V. Sokolov, O. Kilpela, and J. Sinkkonen, Opt. Mater. 17, 103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tchebotareva, A.

J. Kalkman, A. Tchebotareva, A. Polman, T. J. Kippenberg, B. Min, and K. J. Vahala, J. Appl. Phys. 99, 083103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

J. Kalkman, A. Tchebotareva, A. Polman, T. J. Kippenberg, B. Min, and K. J. Vahala, J. Appl. Phys. 99, 083103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zacharias, M.

R. Zhang, S. Seo, A. P. Milenin, M. Zacharias, and U. Gosele, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, R.

R. Zhang, S. Seo, A. P. Milenin, M. Zacharias, and U. Gosele, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A (1)

G. Franzò, A. Irrera, E. C. Moreira, M. Miritello, F. Iacona, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, P. G. Fallica, and F. Priolo, Appl. Phys. A A74, 1 (2002).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. Zhang, S. Seo, A. P. Milenin, M. Zacharias, and U. Gosele, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Kalkman, A. Tchebotareva, A. Polman, T. J. Kippenberg, B. Min, and K. J. Vahala, J. Appl. Phys. 99, 083103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

L. Pavesi, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 15, R1169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

R. Kekatpure and M. Brongersma, Nano Lett. 8, 3787 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzo, and F. Priolo, Nature 408, 440 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Mater. (1)

V. Ovchinnikov, A. Malinin, V. Sokolov, O. Kilpela, and J. Sinkkonen, Opt. Mater. 17, 103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

R. Kekatpure and M. Brongersma, Phys. Rev. A 78, 023829 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. J. Lockwood, Z. H. Lu, and J. M. Baribeau, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 539 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

D. W. Prather, B. Redding, T. Creazzo, E. Marchena, and S. Shi, “Integration of silicon nanocrystals and erbium ring cavities for a two-stage silicon laser,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. (to be published).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Scanning electron microscope image of a concentric Si-nc / SiO 2 microdisk. The inset shows a TEM image of the a-Si / SiO 2 superlattice after annealing, demonstrating Si-nc formation in the a-Si region. The a-Si layer is 3.1   nm thick. (b) Experimental setup to collect WGMs from the edge of the microdisk.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Four concentric disks exhibit WGMs, defined by their inner Si-nc diameter ( d ) and outer SiO 2 ring width ( w ) both listed in micrometers. (a) PL spectrum for varying concentric disks shows decreasing FSR with increasing disk size. (b) Close-up of the high-Q mode indicated in (a) by the dashed box. The observed quality factor of 2850 is limited by the resolution of our spectrometer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral response of FDTD simulation for a 13 μ m Si-nc disk with a 600 nm SiO 2 ring. Inset shows the steady state H z field for first- and second-order radial modes at 791.2 and 794.95 nm, respectively.

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