Abstract

An all-optical terahertz absorption technique for nondestructive characterization of nanometer-scale metal oxide thin films grown on silicon substrates is described. Example measurements of laser-deposited TiO2 and atomic layer-deposited films of HfO2 are presented to demonstrate applicability to pure Y2O3, Al2O3, and VOx and mixed combinatorial films as a function of deposition conditions and thickness. This technique is also found to be sensitive to HfO2 phonon modes in films with a nominal thickness of 5nm.

© 2009 U.S. Government

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  1. See S.L.Dexheimer, ed. Terahertz Spectroscopy: Principles and Applications (CRC Press, 2008).
  2. E. Cockayne, Phys. Rev. B 75, 094103 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. M. Eagles, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 25, 1243 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Gervais and B. Piriou, Phys. Rev. B 10, 1642 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. J. Gonzalez, R. Zallen, and H. Berger, Phys. Rev. B 55, 7014 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Pecharroman, F. Gracia, J. P. Holgado, M. Ocana, A. R. Gonzalez-Elipe, J. Bassas, J. Santiso, and A. Figueras, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 4634 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Portal and R. M. Almeida, Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 2941 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. G. Spitzer, R. C. Miller, L. E. Howarth, and D. A. Kleinman, Phys. Rev. 126, 1710 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. K. Schenck, N. D. Bassim, M. Otani, H. Oguchi, and M. Green, Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 781 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. D. Bassim, P. K. Schenck, E. U. Donev, E. J. Heilweil, E. Cockayne, M. L. Green, and L. C. Feldman, Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 785 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Hand, Semicond. Int. 26, 46 (2003).
  12. J. E. Maslar, W. S. Hurst, D. R. Burgess, W. A. Kimes, N. V. Nguyen, E. F. Moore, and J. T. Hodges, ECS Trans. 13, 139 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. A. Neumayer and E. Cartier, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 1801 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Kidchob, L. Malfatti, F. Serra, P. Falcaro, S. Enzo, and P. Innocenzi, J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 42, 89 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Modreanu, J. Sancho-Parramon, O. Durand, B. Servet, M. Stchakovsky, C. Eypert, C. Naudin, A. Knowles, F. Bridou, and M. F. Ravet, Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 328 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

J. E. Maslar, W. S. Hurst, D. R. Burgess, W. A. Kimes, N. V. Nguyen, E. F. Moore, and J. T. Hodges, ECS Trans. 13, 139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

T. Kidchob, L. Malfatti, F. Serra, P. Falcaro, S. Enzo, and P. Innocenzi, J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 42, 89 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Cockayne, Phys. Rev. B 75, 094103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Schenck, N. D. Bassim, M. Otani, H. Oguchi, and M. Green, Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 781 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. D. Bassim, P. K. Schenck, E. U. Donev, E. J. Heilweil, E. Cockayne, M. L. Green, and L. C. Feldman, Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 785 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

M. Modreanu, J. Sancho-Parramon, O. Durand, B. Servet, M. Stchakovsky, C. Eypert, C. Naudin, A. Knowles, F. Bridou, and M. F. Ravet, Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

S. Portal and R. M. Almeida, Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 2941 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

A. Hand, Semicond. Int. 26, 46 (2003).

C. Pecharroman, F. Gracia, J. P. Holgado, M. Ocana, A. R. Gonzalez-Elipe, J. Bassas, J. Santiso, and A. Figueras, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 4634 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

D. A. Neumayer and E. Cartier, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 1801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

R. J. Gonzalez, R. Zallen, and H. Berger, Phys. Rev. B 55, 7014 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

F. Gervais and B. Piriou, Phys. Rev. B 10, 1642 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

D. M. Eagles, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 25, 1243 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

W. G. Spitzer, R. C. Miller, L. E. Howarth, and D. A. Kleinman, Phys. Rev. 126, 1710 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, R. M.

S. Portal and R. M. Almeida, Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 2941 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bassas, J.

C. Pecharroman, F. Gracia, J. P. Holgado, M. Ocana, A. R. Gonzalez-Elipe, J. Bassas, J. Santiso, and A. Figueras, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 4634 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bassim, N. D.

P. K. Schenck, N. D. Bassim, M. Otani, H. Oguchi, and M. Green, Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 781 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. D. Bassim, P. K. Schenck, E. U. Donev, E. J. Heilweil, E. Cockayne, M. L. Green, and L. C. Feldman, Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 785 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Berger, H.

R. J. Gonzalez, R. Zallen, and H. Berger, Phys. Rev. B 55, 7014 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bridou, F.

M. Modreanu, J. Sancho-Parramon, O. Durand, B. Servet, M. Stchakovsky, C. Eypert, C. Naudin, A. Knowles, F. Bridou, and M. F. Ravet, Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Burgess, D. R.

J. E. Maslar, W. S. Hurst, D. R. Burgess, W. A. Kimes, N. V. Nguyen, E. F. Moore, and J. T. Hodges, ECS Trans. 13, 139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cartier, E.

D. A. Neumayer and E. Cartier, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 1801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cockayne, E.

E. Cockayne, Phys. Rev. B 75, 094103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. D. Bassim, P. K. Schenck, E. U. Donev, E. J. Heilweil, E. Cockayne, M. L. Green, and L. C. Feldman, Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 785 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Donev, E. U.

N. D. Bassim, P. K. Schenck, E. U. Donev, E. J. Heilweil, E. Cockayne, M. L. Green, and L. C. Feldman, Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 785 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Durand, O.

M. Modreanu, J. Sancho-Parramon, O. Durand, B. Servet, M. Stchakovsky, C. Eypert, C. Naudin, A. Knowles, F. Bridou, and M. F. Ravet, Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eagles, D. M.

D. M. Eagles, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 25, 1243 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Enzo, S.

T. Kidchob, L. Malfatti, F. Serra, P. Falcaro, S. Enzo, and P. Innocenzi, J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 42, 89 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eypert, C.

M. Modreanu, J. Sancho-Parramon, O. Durand, B. Servet, M. Stchakovsky, C. Eypert, C. Naudin, A. Knowles, F. Bridou, and M. F. Ravet, Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Falcaro, P.

T. Kidchob, L. Malfatti, F. Serra, P. Falcaro, S. Enzo, and P. Innocenzi, J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 42, 89 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, L. C.

N. D. Bassim, P. K. Schenck, E. U. Donev, E. J. Heilweil, E. Cockayne, M. L. Green, and L. C. Feldman, Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 785 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Figueras, A.

C. Pecharroman, F. Gracia, J. P. Holgado, M. Ocana, A. R. Gonzalez-Elipe, J. Bassas, J. Santiso, and A. Figueras, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 4634 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gervais, F.

F. Gervais and B. Piriou, Phys. Rev. B 10, 1642 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Gonzalez, R. J.

R. J. Gonzalez, R. Zallen, and H. Berger, Phys. Rev. B 55, 7014 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gonzalez-Elipe, A. R.

C. Pecharroman, F. Gracia, J. P. Holgado, M. Ocana, A. R. Gonzalez-Elipe, J. Bassas, J. Santiso, and A. Figueras, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 4634 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gracia, F.

C. Pecharroman, F. Gracia, J. P. Holgado, M. Ocana, A. R. Gonzalez-Elipe, J. Bassas, J. Santiso, and A. Figueras, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 4634 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Green, M.

P. K. Schenck, N. D. Bassim, M. Otani, H. Oguchi, and M. Green, Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 781 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Green, M. L.

N. D. Bassim, P. K. Schenck, E. U. Donev, E. J. Heilweil, E. Cockayne, M. L. Green, and L. C. Feldman, Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 785 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hand, A.

A. Hand, Semicond. Int. 26, 46 (2003).

Heilweil, E. J.

N. D. Bassim, P. K. Schenck, E. U. Donev, E. J. Heilweil, E. Cockayne, M. L. Green, and L. C. Feldman, Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 785 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hodges, J. T.

J. E. Maslar, W. S. Hurst, D. R. Burgess, W. A. Kimes, N. V. Nguyen, E. F. Moore, and J. T. Hodges, ECS Trans. 13, 139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Holgado, J. P.

C. Pecharroman, F. Gracia, J. P. Holgado, M. Ocana, A. R. Gonzalez-Elipe, J. Bassas, J. Santiso, and A. Figueras, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 4634 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Howarth, L. E.

W. G. Spitzer, R. C. Miller, L. E. Howarth, and D. A. Kleinman, Phys. Rev. 126, 1710 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Hurst, W. S.

J. E. Maslar, W. S. Hurst, D. R. Burgess, W. A. Kimes, N. V. Nguyen, E. F. Moore, and J. T. Hodges, ECS Trans. 13, 139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Innocenzi, P.

T. Kidchob, L. Malfatti, F. Serra, P. Falcaro, S. Enzo, and P. Innocenzi, J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 42, 89 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kidchob, T.

T. Kidchob, L. Malfatti, F. Serra, P. Falcaro, S. Enzo, and P. Innocenzi, J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 42, 89 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kimes, W. A.

J. E. Maslar, W. S. Hurst, D. R. Burgess, W. A. Kimes, N. V. Nguyen, E. F. Moore, and J. T. Hodges, ECS Trans. 13, 139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kleinman, D. A.

W. G. Spitzer, R. C. Miller, L. E. Howarth, and D. A. Kleinman, Phys. Rev. 126, 1710 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Knowles, A.

M. Modreanu, J. Sancho-Parramon, O. Durand, B. Servet, M. Stchakovsky, C. Eypert, C. Naudin, A. Knowles, F. Bridou, and M. F. Ravet, Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Malfatti, L.

T. Kidchob, L. Malfatti, F. Serra, P. Falcaro, S. Enzo, and P. Innocenzi, J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 42, 89 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maslar, J. E.

J. E. Maslar, W. S. Hurst, D. R. Burgess, W. A. Kimes, N. V. Nguyen, E. F. Moore, and J. T. Hodges, ECS Trans. 13, 139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miller, R. C.

W. G. Spitzer, R. C. Miller, L. E. Howarth, and D. A. Kleinman, Phys. Rev. 126, 1710 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Modreanu, M.

M. Modreanu, J. Sancho-Parramon, O. Durand, B. Servet, M. Stchakovsky, C. Eypert, C. Naudin, A. Knowles, F. Bridou, and M. F. Ravet, Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moore, E. F.

J. E. Maslar, W. S. Hurst, D. R. Burgess, W. A. Kimes, N. V. Nguyen, E. F. Moore, and J. T. Hodges, ECS Trans. 13, 139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Naudin, C.

M. Modreanu, J. Sancho-Parramon, O. Durand, B. Servet, M. Stchakovsky, C. Eypert, C. Naudin, A. Knowles, F. Bridou, and M. F. Ravet, Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Neumayer, D. A.

D. A. Neumayer and E. Cartier, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 1801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, N. V.

J. E. Maslar, W. S. Hurst, D. R. Burgess, W. A. Kimes, N. V. Nguyen, E. F. Moore, and J. T. Hodges, ECS Trans. 13, 139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ocana, M.

C. Pecharroman, F. Gracia, J. P. Holgado, M. Ocana, A. R. Gonzalez-Elipe, J. Bassas, J. Santiso, and A. Figueras, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 4634 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oguchi, H.

P. K. Schenck, N. D. Bassim, M. Otani, H. Oguchi, and M. Green, Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 781 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Otani, M.

P. K. Schenck, N. D. Bassim, M. Otani, H. Oguchi, and M. Green, Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 781 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pecharroman, C.

C. Pecharroman, F. Gracia, J. P. Holgado, M. Ocana, A. R. Gonzalez-Elipe, J. Bassas, J. Santiso, and A. Figueras, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 4634 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Piriou, B.

F. Gervais and B. Piriou, Phys. Rev. B 10, 1642 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Portal, S.

S. Portal and R. M. Almeida, Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 2941 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ravet, M. F.

M. Modreanu, J. Sancho-Parramon, O. Durand, B. Servet, M. Stchakovsky, C. Eypert, C. Naudin, A. Knowles, F. Bridou, and M. F. Ravet, Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sancho-Parramon, J.

M. Modreanu, J. Sancho-Parramon, O. Durand, B. Servet, M. Stchakovsky, C. Eypert, C. Naudin, A. Knowles, F. Bridou, and M. F. Ravet, Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Santiso, J.

C. Pecharroman, F. Gracia, J. P. Holgado, M. Ocana, A. R. Gonzalez-Elipe, J. Bassas, J. Santiso, and A. Figueras, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 4634 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schenck, P. K.

P. K. Schenck, N. D. Bassim, M. Otani, H. Oguchi, and M. Green, Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 781 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. D. Bassim, P. K. Schenck, E. U. Donev, E. J. Heilweil, E. Cockayne, M. L. Green, and L. C. Feldman, Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 785 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Serra, F.

T. Kidchob, L. Malfatti, F. Serra, P. Falcaro, S. Enzo, and P. Innocenzi, J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 42, 89 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Servet, B.

M. Modreanu, J. Sancho-Parramon, O. Durand, B. Servet, M. Stchakovsky, C. Eypert, C. Naudin, A. Knowles, F. Bridou, and M. F. Ravet, Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Spitzer, W. G.

W. G. Spitzer, R. C. Miller, L. E. Howarth, and D. A. Kleinman, Phys. Rev. 126, 1710 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Stchakovsky, M.

M. Modreanu, J. Sancho-Parramon, O. Durand, B. Servet, M. Stchakovsky, C. Eypert, C. Naudin, A. Knowles, F. Bridou, and M. F. Ravet, Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zallen, R.

R. J. Gonzalez, R. Zallen, and H. Berger, Phys. Rev. B 55, 7014 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (3)

P. K. Schenck, N. D. Bassim, M. Otani, H. Oguchi, and M. Green, Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 781 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. D. Bassim, P. K. Schenck, E. U. Donev, E. J. Heilweil, E. Cockayne, M. L. Green, and L. C. Feldman, Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 785 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Modreanu, J. Sancho-Parramon, O. Durand, B. Servet, M. Stchakovsky, C. Eypert, C. Naudin, A. Knowles, F. Bridou, and M. F. Ravet, Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

ECS Trans. (1)

J. E. Maslar, W. S. Hurst, D. R. Burgess, W. A. Kimes, N. V. Nguyen, E. F. Moore, and J. T. Hodges, ECS Trans. 13, 139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

D. A. Neumayer and E. Cartier, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 1801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Pecharroman, F. Gracia, J. P. Holgado, M. Ocana, A. R. Gonzalez-Elipe, J. Bassas, J. Santiso, and A. Figueras, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 4634 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

D. M. Eagles, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 25, 1243 (1964).
[CrossRef]

J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. (1)

T. Kidchob, L. Malfatti, F. Serra, P. Falcaro, S. Enzo, and P. Innocenzi, J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 42, 89 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

W. G. Spitzer, R. C. Miller, L. E. Howarth, and D. A. Kleinman, Phys. Rev. 126, 1710 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (3)

F. Gervais and B. Piriou, Phys. Rev. B 10, 1642 (1974).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Gonzalez, R. Zallen, and H. Berger, Phys. Rev. B 55, 7014 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Cockayne, Phys. Rev. B 75, 094103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

S. Portal and R. M. Almeida, Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 2941 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Int. (1)

A. Hand, Semicond. Int. 26, 46 (2003).

Other (1)

See S.L.Dexheimer, ed. Terahertz Spectroscopy: Principles and Applications (CRC Press, 2008).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Terahertz absorption library spectra of Ti O 2 pulsed laser deposition films on silicon as a function of substrate temperature. Varying the temperature yields spectra for the rutile (e.g., 180, 375, and 475 cm 1 bands) and anatase (e.g., 250, 330, and 475 cm 1 bands) form of Ti O 2 that are mixed at the 623 K deposition temperature [10]. All films were nominally 200 nm thick.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Terahertz absorption spectra of Hf O 2 films grown by atomic layer deposition on silicon substrates exhibiting spectral structure for ordered crystalline films compared with amorphous depositions at lower temperatures. Results for a 20 nm thick film grown at 581 K overlap the 20 nm 505 K data.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Terahertz absorption spectra of Hf O 2 ALD films on silicon ( T = 503 K ) as a function of deposition time (thickness). Identification of amorphous films (broad spectral absorption) with thicknesses down to 5 nm are resolved via optical density above the zero baseline.

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