Abstract

Structured illumination increases the spatial bandwidth of optical microscopes. We demonstrate bandwidth extension using a physical grating placed close to the sample. This comprises an array of elongated nanoparticles, whose localized surface plasmon resonance is polarization dependent. By arranging the particle orientation to vary with position the grating can be moved by changing the input polarization. A projected optical grating provides an additional independent mechanism for bandwidth extension. Experimental results showing bandwidth improvement in one direction are presented, and the measures necessary to extend the technique for routine imaging are discussed.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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2008 (3)

2007 (2)

A. F. Koenderink, J. V. Hernndez, F. Robicheaux, L. D. Noordam, and A. Polman, Nano Lett. 7, 745 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, S. Durant, H. Lee, Y. Pikus, N. Fang, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 7, 403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

1998 (1)

R. Heintzmann and C. Cremer, Proc. SPIE 3568, 185 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

G. Zoriniants and W. L. Barnes, New J. Phys. 10, 105002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Belkebir, K.

Chaumet, P. C.

Cheng, M.

M. Cheng and H. Zhang, “Apparatus and method for super-resolution optical microscopy,” international patent application WO 2005/078382 A1 (August 25, 2005).

Cremer, C.

Durant, S.

Z. Liu, S. Durant, H. Lee, Y. Pikus, N. Fang, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 7, 403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, N.

Z. Liu, S. Durant, H. Lee, Y. Pikus, N. Fang, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 7, 403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giovannini, H.

Heintzmann, R.

Hernndez, J. V.

A. F. Koenderink, J. V. Hernndez, F. Robicheaux, L. D. Noordam, and A. Polman, Nano Lett. 7, 745 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, K.

Jovin, T. M.

Koenderink, A. F.

A. F. Koenderink, J. V. Hernndez, F. Robicheaux, L. D. Noordam, and A. Polman, Nano Lett. 7, 745 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, H.

Z. Liu, S. Durant, H. Lee, Y. Pikus, N. Fang, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 7, 403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, S. Durant, H. Lee, Y. Pikus, N. Fang, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 7, 403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noordam, L. D.

A. F. Koenderink, J. V. Hernndez, F. Robicheaux, L. D. Noordam, and A. Polman, Nano Lett. 7, 745 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pikus, Y.

Z. Liu, S. Durant, H. Lee, Y. Pikus, N. Fang, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 7, 403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pitter, M. C.

Polman, A.

A. F. Koenderink, J. V. Hernndez, F. Robicheaux, L. D. Noordam, and A. Polman, Nano Lett. 7, 745 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robicheaux, F.

A. F. Koenderink, J. V. Hernndez, F. Robicheaux, L. D. Noordam, and A. Polman, Nano Lett. 7, 745 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sentenac, A.

Somekh, M. G.

Sun, C.

Z. Liu, S. Durant, H. Lee, Y. Pikus, N. Fang, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 7, 403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiong, Y.

Z. Liu, S. Durant, H. Lee, Y. Pikus, N. Fang, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 7, 403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

M. Cheng and H. Zhang, “Apparatus and method for super-resolution optical microscopy,” international patent application WO 2005/078382 A1 (August 25, 2005).

Zhang, X.

Z. Liu, S. Durant, H. Lee, Y. Pikus, N. Fang, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 7, 403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zoriniants, G.

G. Zoriniants and W. L. Barnes, New J. Phys. 10, 105002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Nano Lett. (2)

A. F. Koenderink, J. V. Hernndez, F. Robicheaux, L. D. Noordam, and A. Polman, Nano Lett. 7, 745 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, S. Durant, H. Lee, Y. Pikus, N. Fang, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 7, 403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

G. Zoriniants and W. L. Barnes, New J. Phys. 10, 105002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

R. Heintzmann and C. Cremer, Proc. SPIE 3568, 185 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

M. Cheng and H. Zhang, “Apparatus and method for super-resolution optical microscopy,” international patent application WO 2005/078382 A1 (August 25, 2005).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the optical setup. Inset, electron micrograph of the physical grating; period = 1 μ m .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical phase shift of light beam after passing through the physical grating, as a function of the polarization angle of the incident beam.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Images of two fluorescent beads obtained with (I) a conventional bright field microscope and (II) with the double-grating system, both images 9 μ m in width. Second row, intermediate processing (top right particle only); third row, cross-sectional profiles of the distributions in the second row. (a) Conventional microscope, (b) optical grating only, (c) physical grating only, (d) double grating.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Summary of the FWHM Obtained by Applying Different Enhancement Mechanisms

Equations (2)

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I m n ( x ) = [ 1 + g o cos ( k 0 x + ϕ m ) ] [ 1 + g p cos ( k p x + ψ n ) + . ] ,
O m n ( x ) = [ I m n ( x ) S ( x ) ] H ( x ) ,

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