Abstract

A tunable Bragg reflector based on a 3D hollow waveguide (HWG) has been proposed. Ultrawide tuning ranges of 152nm and 164nm, respectively, in Bragg wavelengths of TE and TM modes of the Bragg reflector have been presented experimentally. With a 3D hat-shaped HWG, a giant birefringence of 0.012 has been demonstrated that can be varied with a variable air core to realize tunable polarization-manipulating devices. The ultrawide tuning in Bragg wavelength can be utilized to make a number of widely tunable photonic devices based on the proposed 3D HWG Bragg reflector.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Ibanescu, Y. Fink, S. Fan, E. L. Thomas, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Science 289, 415 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. S. G. Johnson, M. Ibanescu, M. Skorobogatiy, O. Weisberg, T. D. Engeness, M. Soljacic, S. A. Jacobs, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, Opt. Express 9, 748 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Badreldin, K. Madkour, and D. Khalil, J. Opt. A 9, 88 (2007).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Lee, R. Khosravani, J. Peng, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, A. E. Willner, and J. Feinberg, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 1277 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

L. M. Augustin, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, E. J. Geluk, and M. K. Smit, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 1673 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Badreldin, K. Madkour, and D. Khalil, J. Opt. A 9, 88 (2007).

2006 (1)

Y. Sakurai, A. Matsutani, and F. Koyama, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

Y. Sakurai, Y. Yokota, A. Matsutani, and F. Koyama, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Koyama, T. Miura, and Y. Sakurai, IEICE Trans. Electron. J88-C, 388 (2005).

2003 (1)

T. Miura, F. Koyama, and A. Matsutani, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 1240 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

2000 (1)

M. Ibanescu, Y. Fink, S. Fan, E. L. Thomas, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Science 289, 415 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

S. Lee, R. Khosravani, J. Peng, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, A. E. Willner, and J. Feinberg, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 1277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

P. Yeh and A. Yariv, Opt. Commun. 19, 427 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Aoki, Y.

T. Miura, F. Koyama, Y. Aoki, A. Matsutani, and K. Iga, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 40, L688 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Augustin, L. M.

L. M. Augustin, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, E. J. Geluk, and M. K. Smit, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 1673 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Badreldin, T.

T. Badreldin, K. Madkour, and D. Khalil, J. Opt. A 9, 88 (2007).

Blockley, A. F.

R. M. Jenkins, M. E. McNie, A. F. Blockley, N. Price, and J. MaQuillan, in Proceedings of Optoelectronics and Communications Conference and Conference on Optical Internet (2004).

Duguay, M. A.

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Engeness, T. D.

Fan, S.

M. Ibanescu, Y. Fink, S. Fan, E. L. Thomas, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Science 289, 415 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feinberg, J.

S. Lee, R. Khosravani, J. Peng, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, A. E. Willner, and J. Feinberg, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 1277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fink, Y.

Geluk, E. J.

L. M. Augustin, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, E. J. Geluk, and M. K. Smit, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 1673 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grubsky, V.

S. Lee, R. Khosravani, J. Peng, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, A. E. Willner, and J. Feinberg, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 1277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ibanescu, M.

Iga, K.

T. Miura, F. Koyama, Y. Aoki, A. Matsutani, and K. Iga, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 40, L688 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, S. A.

Jenkins, R. M.

R. M. Jenkins, M. E. McNie, A. F. Blockley, N. Price, and J. MaQuillan, in Proceedings of Optoelectronics and Communications Conference and Conference on Optical Internet (2004).

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Johnson, S. G.

Khalil, D.

T. Badreldin, K. Madkour, and D. Khalil, J. Opt. A 9, 88 (2007).

Khosravani, R.

S. Lee, R. Khosravani, J. Peng, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, A. E. Willner, and J. Feinberg, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 1277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Koch, T.

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kokubun, Y.

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, F.

M. Kumar, T. Sakaguchi, and F. Koyama, J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 1417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sakurai, A. Matsutani, and F. Koyama, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Koyama, T. Miura, and Y. Sakurai, IEICE Trans. Electron. J88-C, 388 (2005).

Y. Sakurai, Y. Yokota, A. Matsutani, and F. Koyama, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Miura, F. Koyama, and A. Matsutani, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 1240 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Miura, F. Koyama, Y. Aoki, A. Matsutani, and K. Iga, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 40, L688 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, Fumio

T. Miura and Fumio Koyama, in The 16th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Laser and Electro-Optics Society (2003), paper ThH4.

Kumar, M.

Lee, S.

S. Lee, R. Khosravani, J. Peng, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, A. E. Willner, and J. Feinberg, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 1277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Madkour, K.

T. Badreldin, K. Madkour, and D. Khalil, J. Opt. A 9, 88 (2007).

MaQuillan, J.

R. M. Jenkins, M. E. McNie, A. F. Blockley, N. Price, and J. MaQuillan, in Proceedings of Optoelectronics and Communications Conference and Conference on Optical Internet (2004).

Matsutani, A.

Y. Sakurai, A. Matsutani, and F. Koyama, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sakurai, Y. Yokota, A. Matsutani, and F. Koyama, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Miura, F. Koyama, and A. Matsutani, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 1240 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Miura, F. Koyama, Y. Aoki, A. Matsutani, and K. Iga, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 40, L688 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McNie, M. E.

R. M. Jenkins, M. E. McNie, A. F. Blockley, N. Price, and J. MaQuillan, in Proceedings of Optoelectronics and Communications Conference and Conference on Optical Internet (2004).

Miura, T.

F. Koyama, T. Miura, and Y. Sakurai, IEICE Trans. Electron. J88-C, 388 (2005).

T. Miura, F. Koyama, and A. Matsutani, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 1240 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Miura, F. Koyama, Y. Aoki, A. Matsutani, and K. Iga, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 40, L688 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Miura and Fumio Koyama, in The 16th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Laser and Electro-Optics Society (2003), paper ThH4.

Peng, J.

S. Lee, R. Khosravani, J. Peng, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, A. E. Willner, and J. Feinberg, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 1277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, L.

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Price, N.

R. M. Jenkins, M. E. McNie, A. F. Blockley, N. Price, and J. MaQuillan, in Proceedings of Optoelectronics and Communications Conference and Conference on Optical Internet (2004).

Sakaguchi, T.

Sakurai, Y.

Y. Sakurai, A. Matsutani, and F. Koyama, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Koyama, T. Miura, and Y. Sakurai, IEICE Trans. Electron. J88-C, 388 (2005).

Y. Sakurai, Y. Yokota, A. Matsutani, and F. Koyama, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Skorobogatiy, M.

Smit, M. K.

L. M. Augustin, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, E. J. Geluk, and M. K. Smit, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 1673 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Soljacic, M.

Starodubov, D. S.

S. Lee, R. Khosravani, J. Peng, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, A. E. Willner, and J. Feinberg, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 1277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, E. L.

M. Ibanescu, Y. Fink, S. Fan, E. L. Thomas, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Science 289, 415 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Tol, J. J. G. M.

L. M. Augustin, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, E. J. Geluk, and M. K. Smit, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 1673 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Weisberg, O.

Willner, A. E.

S. Lee, R. Khosravani, J. Peng, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, A. E. Willner, and J. Feinberg, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 1277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

P. Yeh and A. Yariv, Opt. Commun. 19, 427 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, P.

P. Yeh and A. Yariv, Opt. Commun. 19, 427 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Yokota, Y.

Y. Sakurai, Y. Yokota, A. Matsutani, and F. Koyama, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

Y. Sakurai, A. Matsutani, and F. Koyama, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sakurai, Y. Yokota, A. Matsutani, and F. Koyama, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13 (1986).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (3)

L. M. Augustin, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, E. J. Geluk, and M. K. Smit, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 1673 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Lee, R. Khosravani, J. Peng, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, A. E. Willner, and J. Feinberg, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 1277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Miura, F. Koyama, and A. Matsutani, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 1240 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

F. Koyama, T. Miura, and Y. Sakurai, IEICE Trans. Electron. J88-C, 388 (2005).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. A (1)

T. Badreldin, K. Madkour, and D. Khalil, J. Opt. A 9, 88 (2007).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 (1)

T. Miura, F. Koyama, Y. Aoki, A. Matsutani, and K. Iga, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 40, L688 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

P. Yeh and A. Yariv, Opt. Commun. 19, 427 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Science (1)

M. Ibanescu, Y. Fink, S. Fan, E. L. Thomas, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Science 289, 415 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

R. M. Jenkins, M. E. McNie, A. F. Blockley, N. Price, and J. MaQuillan, in Proceedings of Optoelectronics and Communications Conference and Conference on Optical Internet (2004).

T. Miura and Fumio Koyama, in The 16th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Laser and Electro-Optics Society (2003), paper ThH4.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of (a) 3D HWG Bragg reflector and (b) cross section of steplike 3D HWG. All the layers in top and bottom DBR mirrors are quarter-wavelength thick. The effective index of air core is n 1 and that of lateral air cladding is n 2 , where n 1 > n 2 because of the difference in air gaps in lateral direction.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Effect of step height on the change in Bragg wavelength where the air-core thickness is changed from 10 μ m to 5 μ m at each step height; also shows effect of step height on birefringence at D = 5 μ m . (b) computed mode-field distribution at h = 2.3 μ m with D = 5 μ m .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured reflected spectra for (a) TE and (b) TM modes, at different air-core thicknesses.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured tuning in Bragg wavelength of TE and TM modes and measured birefringence versus air-core thickness showing the tuning in birefringence.

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