Abstract

Single-mode optical rib waveguides operating at telecommunication wavelengths are successfully patterned via a hot embossing technique in a thermally evaporated chalcogenide glass thin film on a chalcogenide glass substrate. Ellipsometry is used to measure the refractive index dispersion of the pressed film (As40Se60) and substrate (Ge17As18Se65).

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2008 (2)

W. J. Pan, H. Rowe, D. Zhang, Y. Zhang, A. Loni, D. Furniss, P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 50, 1961 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Orava, J. Sik, T. Wagner, and M. Frumar, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 083512 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

W. J. Pan, D. Furniss, H. Rowe, C. A. Miller, A. Loni, P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 1302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

A. B. Seddon, W. J. Pan, D. Furniss, C. A. Miller, H. Rowe, D. M. Zhang, E. M. Mcbrearty, Y. Zhang, A. Loni, P. Sewell, and T. B. Benson, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 2515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

2002 (1)

1999 (1)

J. F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, E. J. Knystautas, M. A. Duguay, K. A. Richardson, and T. Cardinal, J. Lightwave Technol. Vol. 17, 1148 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

G. E. Jellison, Jr., and F. A. Modine, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 371 (erratum p. 2137), (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

A. B. Seddon, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184, 44 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

R. A. Soref, J. Schmidtchen, and K. Petermann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1971 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

R. G. Walker, Electron. Lett. 21, 581 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1935 (1)

D. A. G. Bruggeman, Ann. Phys. 24, 636 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Benson, T. B.

A. B. Seddon, W. J. Pan, D. Furniss, C. A. Miller, H. Rowe, D. M. Zhang, E. M. Mcbrearty, Y. Zhang, A. Loni, P. Sewell, and T. B. Benson, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 2515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Benson, T. M.

W. J. Pan, H. Rowe, D. Zhang, Y. Zhang, A. Loni, D. Furniss, P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 50, 1961 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Pan, D. Furniss, H. Rowe, C. A. Miller, A. Loni, P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 1302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bruggeman, D. A. G.

D. A. G. Bruggeman, Ann. Phys. 24, 636 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Cardinal, T.

J. F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, E. J. Knystautas, M. A. Duguay, K. A. Richardson, and T. Cardinal, J. Lightwave Technol. Vol. 17, 1148 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cheong, S.-W.

Duguay, M. A.

J. F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, E. J. Knystautas, M. A. Duguay, K. A. Richardson, and T. Cardinal, J. Lightwave Technol. Vol. 17, 1148 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Frumar, M.

J. Orava, J. Sik, T. Wagner, and M. Frumar, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 083512 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Furniss, D.

W. J. Pan, H. Rowe, D. Zhang, Y. Zhang, A. Loni, D. Furniss, P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 50, 1961 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Pan, D. Furniss, H. Rowe, C. A. Miller, A. Loni, P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 1302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Seddon, W. J. Pan, D. Furniss, C. A. Miller, H. Rowe, D. M. Zhang, E. M. Mcbrearty, Y. Zhang, A. Loni, P. Sewell, and T. B. Benson, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 2515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Galstian, T. V.

J. F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, E. J. Knystautas, M. A. Duguay, K. A. Richardson, and T. Cardinal, J. Lightwave Technol. Vol. 17, 1148 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, H. Y.

Jarvis, R.

Jellison, G. E.

G. E. Jellison, Jr., and F. A. Modine, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 371 (erratum p. 2137), (1996).
[CrossRef]

Katsufuji, T.

Knystautas, E. J.

J. F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, E. J. Knystautas, M. A. Duguay, K. A. Richardson, and T. Cardinal, J. Lightwave Technol. Vol. 17, 1148 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lenz, G.

Li, W.

Loni, A.

W. J. Pan, H. Rowe, D. Zhang, Y. Zhang, A. Loni, D. Furniss, P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 50, 1961 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Pan, D. Furniss, H. Rowe, C. A. Miller, A. Loni, P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 1302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Seddon, W. J. Pan, D. Furniss, C. A. Miller, H. Rowe, D. M. Zhang, E. M. Mcbrearty, Y. Zhang, A. Loni, P. Sewell, and T. B. Benson, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 2515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

Madsen, N.

Malek, J.

J. Malek and J. Shanelova, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 3458 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mcbrearty, E. M.

A. B. Seddon, W. J. Pan, D. Furniss, C. A. Miller, H. Rowe, D. M. Zhang, E. M. Mcbrearty, Y. Zhang, A. Loni, P. Sewell, and T. B. Benson, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 2515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Meneghini, C.

J. F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, E. J. Knystautas, M. A. Duguay, K. A. Richardson, and T. Cardinal, J. Lightwave Technol. Vol. 17, 1148 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Miller, C. A.

W. J. Pan, D. Furniss, H. Rowe, C. A. Miller, A. Loni, P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 1302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Seddon, W. J. Pan, D. Furniss, C. A. Miller, H. Rowe, D. M. Zhang, E. M. Mcbrearty, Y. Zhang, A. Loni, P. Sewell, and T. B. Benson, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 2515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Modine, F. A.

G. E. Jellison, Jr., and F. A. Modine, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 371 (erratum p. 2137), (1996).
[CrossRef]

Orava, J.

J. Orava, J. Sik, T. Wagner, and M. Frumar, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 083512 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pan, W. J.

W. J. Pan, H. Rowe, D. Zhang, Y. Zhang, A. Loni, D. Furniss, P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 50, 1961 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Pan, D. Furniss, H. Rowe, C. A. Miller, A. Loni, P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 1302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Seddon, W. J. Pan, D. Furniss, C. A. Miller, H. Rowe, D. M. Zhang, E. M. Mcbrearty, Y. Zhang, A. Loni, P. Sewell, and T. B. Benson, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 2515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Petermann, K.

R. A. Soref, J. Schmidtchen, and K. Petermann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1971 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K. A.

J. F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, E. J. Knystautas, M. A. Duguay, K. A. Richardson, and T. Cardinal, J. Lightwave Technol. Vol. 17, 1148 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rode, A.

Rowe, H.

W. J. Pan, H. Rowe, D. Zhang, Y. Zhang, A. Loni, D. Furniss, P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 50, 1961 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Pan, D. Furniss, H. Rowe, C. A. Miller, A. Loni, P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 1302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Seddon, W. J. Pan, D. Furniss, C. A. Miller, H. Rowe, D. M. Zhang, E. M. Mcbrearty, Y. Zhang, A. Loni, P. Sewell, and T. B. Benson, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 2515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ruan, Y.

Savage, J. A.

J. A. Savage, Infrared Optical Materials and Their Antireflection Coatings (Adam Hilger, 1985).

Schmidtchen, J.

R. A. Soref, J. Schmidtchen, and K. Petermann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1971 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Seddon, A. B.

W. J. Pan, H. Rowe, D. Zhang, Y. Zhang, A. Loni, D. Furniss, P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 50, 1961 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Pan, D. Furniss, H. Rowe, C. A. Miller, A. Loni, P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 1302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Seddon, W. J. Pan, D. Furniss, C. A. Miller, H. Rowe, D. M. Zhang, E. M. Mcbrearty, Y. Zhang, A. Loni, P. Sewell, and T. B. Benson, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 2515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Seddon, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184, 44 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sewell, P.

W. J. Pan, H. Rowe, D. Zhang, Y. Zhang, A. Loni, D. Furniss, P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 50, 1961 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Pan, D. Furniss, H. Rowe, C. A. Miller, A. Loni, P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 1302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Seddon, W. J. Pan, D. Furniss, C. A. Miller, H. Rowe, D. M. Zhang, E. M. Mcbrearty, Y. Zhang, A. Loni, P. Sewell, and T. B. Benson, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 2515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shanelova, J.

J. Malek and J. Shanelova, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 3458 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sik, J.

J. Orava, J. Sik, T. Wagner, and M. Frumar, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 083512 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Slusher, R. E.

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref, J. Schmidtchen, and K. Petermann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1971 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Spälter, S.

Viens, J. F.

J. F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, E. J. Knystautas, M. A. Duguay, K. A. Richardson, and T. Cardinal, J. Lightwave Technol. Vol. 17, 1148 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, A.

J. F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, E. J. Knystautas, M. A. Duguay, K. A. Richardson, and T. Cardinal, J. Lightwave Technol. Vol. 17, 1148 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, T.

J. Orava, J. Sik, T. Wagner, and M. Frumar, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 083512 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Walker, R. G.

R. G. Walker, Electron. Lett. 21, 581 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D.

W. J. Pan, H. Rowe, D. Zhang, Y. Zhang, A. Loni, D. Furniss, P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 50, 1961 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhang, “Design and fabrication of novel glass based fibre-on-glass waveguides,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Nottingham, UK, 2007).

Zhang, D. M.

A. B. Seddon, W. J. Pan, D. Furniss, C. A. Miller, H. Rowe, D. M. Zhang, E. M. Mcbrearty, Y. Zhang, A. Loni, P. Sewell, and T. B. Benson, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 2515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

W. J. Pan, H. Rowe, D. Zhang, Y. Zhang, A. Loni, D. Furniss, P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 50, 1961 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Seddon, W. J. Pan, D. Furniss, C. A. Miller, H. Rowe, D. M. Zhang, E. M. Mcbrearty, Y. Zhang, A. Loni, P. Sewell, and T. B. Benson, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 2515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, J.

Ann. Phys. (1)

D. A. G. Bruggeman, Ann. Phys. 24, 636 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. E. Jellison, Jr., and F. A. Modine, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 371 (erratum p. 2137), (1996).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

R. G. Walker, Electron. Lett. 21, 581 (1985).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. A. Soref, J. Schmidtchen, and K. Petermann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1971 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Orava, J. Sik, T. Wagner, and M. Frumar, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 083512 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, E. J. Knystautas, M. A. Duguay, K. A. Richardson, and T. Cardinal, J. Lightwave Technol. Vol. 17, 1148 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (4)

A. B. Seddon, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184, 44 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Seddon, W. J. Pan, D. Furniss, C. A. Miller, H. Rowe, D. M. Zhang, E. M. Mcbrearty, Y. Zhang, A. Loni, P. Sewell, and T. B. Benson, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 2515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Pan, D. Furniss, H. Rowe, C. A. Miller, A. Loni, P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 1302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Malek and J. Shanelova, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 3458 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

W. J. Pan, H. Rowe, D. Zhang, Y. Zhang, A. Loni, D. Furniss, P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 50, 1961 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (2)

J. A. Savage, Infrared Optical Materials and Their Antireflection Coatings (Adam Hilger, 1985).

D. Zhang, “Design and fabrication of novel glass based fibre-on-glass waveguides,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Nottingham, UK, 2007).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SEM backscattered image of an As 40 Se 60 (as-batched composition of target bulk glass) unpressed thin film (upper part) thermally evaporated onto a Ge 17 As 18 Se 65 (as-batched composition) glass substrate (lower part). The thin film thickness was 4344 ± 6 nm .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM images of channels in the silicon mold and rib waveguides in the chalcogenide glass sample: cross-sectional views of (a) one channel of the mold and (b) the corresponding embossed rib waveguide and top views (with a slight angle) of (c) one mold channel of nominal width 5 μ m and (d) the corresponding embossed glass rib waveguide.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Ellipsometry measurement of refractive index dispersion of the pressed As 40 Se 60 thin film and Ge 17 As 18 Se 65 as-annealed bulk glass sample across the wavelength range: 300 nm to 2300 nm .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Near-field intensity profile observed at 1550 nm wavelength for a 5.5 μ m wide As 40 Se 60 rib waveguide on a Ge 17 As 18 Se 65 substrate, quasi-TE mode.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Hot Embossing Pressing Conditions

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